There are four types of mood episodes in bipolar disorder: mania, hypomania, depression, and mixed episodes. Each mood episode comes with a series of symptoms. In the manic phase of bipolar disorder, feelings of increased energy and extreme happiness are the most common. People who are experiencing a manic episode often cannot stop talking, their talking is fast and very hard to understand, they sleep very little, and are very hyperactive. They feel they are invincible and can do anything in the world. Hypomania is a less severe type of mania.
There is no known specific pathophysiology that is associated with Bipolar spectrum disorder, nonetheless, it’s thought that this disorder arises from many areas such as, genetic, physiological, environmental, epigenetics and psychosocial
People with bipolar I disorder have full manic and major depressive episodes. Most of them experience an alternation of the episodes; for example, weeks of mania may be followed by a period of wellness, followed, in turn, by an episode of depression. Some, however, have mixed episodes, in which they display both manic and depressive symptoms within the same episode—for example, having racing thoughts amidst feelings of extreme sadness. In bipolar II disorder, hypomanic—that is, mildy manic—episodes alternate with major depressive episodes over the course of time. When a person experiences numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms and mild depressive symptoms, but not full-blown episodes, DSM-5 assigns a diagnosis of cyclothymic disorder. The symptoms of this milder form of bipolar disorder continue for two or more years, interrupted occasionally by normal moods that may last for only days or weeks.
Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness that is characterized by changes in mood. It can lead to risky behavior, damage relationships and careers, and even suicidal outcomes if it’s not treated. Bipolar disorder is more common in older teenagers and young adults, it can affect children as young as 6. Women experience more periods of depression than men. More remains to be learned about this condition that affects millions of people.
Bipolar disorder has varied symptoms: The most pronounced symptoms of bipolar disorder are dramatic mood swings consisting of extremely “high” manic episodes to debilitating episodes of depression and then back again with relatively normal moods in between. Behaviors during a manic episode include heightened feelings of euphoria, extreme energy, decreased need for sleep, extreme irritability and distractibility, and increased aggression. Depressive episodes bring about excessive feelings of despair, hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, and sometimes thoughts of
Bipolar Disorder or manic-depressive disorder is a disorder characterized by highs, manias, and lows, depressions, and can therefore be easily distinguished from unipolar depression, a major depressive disorder in DSM-5, by the presence of manic or hypomanic episodes (Miklowitz & Gitlin, 2014). Bipolar disorder is generally an episodic, lifelong illness with a variable course (American Psychiatric Association, 2010). There are two classifications of bipolar disorder; bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder. If the episodes are primarily manic but there has been at least one depressive episode, the diagnosis is bipolar I disorder (Early, 2009). If the episodes are primarily depressed but there has been at least one episode of hypomania, increased mood that is more euphoric than normal but not quite manic, the diagnosis is bipolar II disorder (Early, 2009).
As I stated earlier, bipolar disorder consists of shifts in mood, energy, and activity levels. This can mean someone can seem very sad and depressed for a long period of time and then a period of extreme happiness. These can be shown in mood or behavioral changes and can be shown in how well they are able to concentrate, how much sleep they are getting, or even if they have thoughts of suicide (NIMH). Although the easiest way to spot bipolar is through extreme mood swings, it can still be present when such mood swings are less noticeable. It is important to look out for even the smallest mood swings because if they are frequent enough it can be a sign of one having bipolar disorder.
The National Institute of Mental Health describes bipolar I disorder as the occurrence of manic episodes that can last up to seven days, or experiencing a state of mania so severe that one must be hospitalized. With manic episodes, it is common to experience depressive symptoms as well, which can last two weeks or more. The NIMH defines bipolar II disorder as a pattern of depressive episodes with the addition of hypomanic episodes, which are not as intense and distressing as the manic episodes in bipolar I disorder. During a manic episode one might be experiencing feelings of having a lot of energy, feeling jumpy or wired, talking fast about a variety of topics, racing thoughts, and wanting to do risky things. During an episode of depression,
Bipolar disorder is behavior disorder that results in shifts of mood, lack of energy, low activity levels, and difficulty performing day-to-day tasks. There are two types of Bipolar disorder. Bipolar 1 Disorder, is when the primary symptom is manic, or cycling episodes of mania and depression. Bipolar 2 Disorder is reoccurring depression alongside hypomanic episodes. Manic episodes are periods of elevated, expansive, or irritable mood that may occur for at least a week. In contrast, depressive episodes are intensely unhappy or hopeless states. Emotional and drastic changes from the individual’s standard behavior that may occur randomly are called mood episodes. These mood episodes are the reason that bipolar disorder is sometimes referred to as manic-depressive illness. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, symptoms during manic episodes include talking quickly, racing thoughts, little sleep, inflated self esteem, and low attention spans. During depressive episodes, individuals have diminished ability in remembering, indecisiveness, lack of energy to engage in activities, reduced interest in activities, guilt, feeling valueless, and suicidal thoughts or sometimes in extreme cases, attempts at suicide. Besides these common symptoms, researchers have found that bipolar disorder may also cause memory dysfunctions, attention deficits, and learning problems. The impairments in cognitive
Living with waves of happiness followed by sadness is the life that Nicki Brown lives. From my interview with her it is clear that she has Bipolar Disorder II, she has also become more aware as to why she behaves the way she does. Nicki states the importance of addressing mental issues and seeking treatment, because in the long run it could save one’s life. Do you feel have periods of deep depressive states, along with moments of high motivation? Do you find yourself seeking slightly risky activities while depressed? Have you experienced or are currently experiencing stressful life events? Does anybody in your family suffer from a psychological disorder? By answering yes to these questions, this portrays some characteristics of Bipolar Disorder II. My case study is on Nicki Brown, who appears to have Bipolar Disorder II.
Silver Linings Playbook was chosen from the list because the psychological disorder that is portrayed throughout the film is one that I am
Writer obtained the information for this clinical presentation from the interviews with the individual, records from the chart and from asking my supervisor about the person’s history and current goals.
Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. It is classified as a mood disorder and is characterized by severe mood swings between states of euphoric elation and depression. While everyone is happy and sad sometimes, the mood states of bipolar disorder are extreme. When manic, people with bipolar disorder may have delusions of grandeur, talk rapidly, and their attention will flit from one subject to another. A select few, although by no means all patients may become violent. When depressed, the patient may not want to get out of bed and feel he or she has no desire to live. 'Rapid cycling' is when patients cycle between these extremes much more quickly than the customary weeks or months.
Manic symptoms are fundamental to the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, and to meet diagnostic criteria, the symptoms must persist for at least one week (or shorter if hospitalization is required) (Keltner, 2011). Manic phases can have a sudden onset, escalate quickly, and they can last anywhere from a few days to several months. Symptoms of mania include talkativeness, racing thoughts, distractibility, extreme irritability, impaired judgment, and social blunders may even occur. Individuals experiencing a manic episode have an inflated view of their importance, sometimes reaching grandiosity (Keltner, 2011). Involvement with alcohol and drugs is fairly common, and they are at a high risk of destructive behaviors such as suicide, addiction, and violence. Manic patients with extreme anger and