Introduction Approximately 22% of the American population suffers from some kind of mental disorder at any given time. (Passer and Smith, 2004) Schizophrenia is one of the most serious of these mental disorders, and there are many different kinds of treatment. While all mental disorders offer diagnosis and treatment challenges, few are more challenging than schizophrenia. It is both bizarre and puzzling, and has been described as “one of the most challenging disorders to treat effectively.” (Passer and Smith, 2004, 534)
Schizophrenia and Medication Adherence James D. Eaton Durham Technical Community College Abstract P- schizophrenic patients in the community prescribed antipsychotics I- assertive community treatment teams (ACT team) C- standard treatments with simple follow up appointments in outpatient clinics O- patients with ACT teams adhere to medications and have a reduction in hospitalizations Schizophrenia and Medication Adherence Introduction For most individuals with schizophrenia, a thorough treatment plan is vital to assist with medication adherence, reduce hospitalization and to provide improvement in quality of life. Typically a prescription for antipsychotics is necessary not only to reduce positive
Setting and sample Participants were recruited from the inpatient ward in a psychiatric facility in a metropolitan city with the following inclusion criteria: (a) those who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia by a psychiatrist based on the
Medication is an important treatment for individuals with schizophrenia disorder. Antipsychotics, mood stabilizers and antidepressants are the most popular for treating these individuals (Rubin, Springer, & Trawver, 2010). Because their treatment revolves around medication to help stabilize them, it is important to set up behavioral tailoring interventions. Behavioral tailoring
Once hospitalized, SC was enrolled in the Early Psychosis Intervention (EPI) Program. This pilot provides timely treatment for individuals under 25 who are newly diagnosed, or have untreated psychosis (Vancouver Coastal Health, 2016). SC met these criteria. EPI is based on the idea that if psychosis is recognized and treated early, interventions can limit the potential for ongoing negative consequences (BC Early Psychosis Intervention Program, 2016). Although this was SC’s fourth hospitalization, this was her first time on the EPI. By not being treated effectively on her first admission, her chances of success were reduced. A substantial barrier for EPI is a client’s delay, or refusal to access services (BC Schizophrenia Society, 2012). SC had not been ready to accept treatment during previous admissions. Lappin et al. (2016) also argue that there needs to be available services specifically for young adults early in their illness that also have particular interventions for drug related psychosis. This addictions component is not specifically addressed in the current EPI model. However, it specifically targets young adults.
The management of schizophrenia is complex and requires an “all-encompassing approach” which should be individualized to meet the needs of a particular patient (Schizophrenia Society of Canada, 2016, para. 5).
Introduction Antipsychotic medications have become the most effective treatment for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia (Lieberman et al., 2005), but medication non-compliance tends to be a common issue among this population. Approximately one-third of people diagnosed with schizophrenia have been found to be non-compliant with their prescribed medications (West et al., 2005). Medication non-compliance is a very serious issue among this population, as it is associated with relapse, psychiatric hospitalization, and functional outcomes. However, very little is being done to address this issue. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has recently been integrated into treatments for schizophrenia, and several studies have found it to be effective in
Low medication adherence has significant consequences on the health of patients. Approximately 125 000 deaths per year in the U.S. are directly related to poor adherence to medication (Bosworth et al., 2011). A retrospective
In doing my research for this paper there was one major theme that repeated itself as a concern for patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia. Medication has been the hardest part for treating clients that were diagnosed. Medication is a major issue when dealing with any patient in a behavioral health setting.
Children with a first episode of psychosis, typically before 18 years of age, are diagnosed with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). Compared to adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS) the disorder is associated with increased severity of symptoms, specifically of the negative subtype, and poorer outcome. Due to the extreme rarity of EOS, the current research is still in its initial stages and is often times based on findings in research that focuses on AOS. However, researchers have revealed valuable information that serve as a foundation for a more complete understanding of EOS that will aid in providing increased efficacy in treatment approaches. Future research should attempt to maintain consistency with other experiments’ inclusivity of
Some of the treatments for psychosis include the use of antipsychotic medications. Antipsychotics are the first-line treatment for psychosis. These agents may be given orally or via injection when a person is admitted to hospital. Antipsychotics are also called neuroleptics. They act by blocking the effects of dopamine in the brain and can decrease anxiety and aggression within a few hours of taking the medication.
Schizophrenia stands to be inherently rare, however, the illness is, “among the worlds top ten causes of long-term disability” (Meuser, 2015). The onset of the disorder takes place over a period of approximately five years and during this time, symptoms begin to appear. Schizophrenia has negative, positive, and cognitive symptoms all of which stem from a breakdown in relation between thought, emotion and behavior (Meyer). These symptoms include but are not limited to withdrawal, hallucinations and delusions; without proper treatment a person could potentially become a danger or threat to themselves and those around them, “Because of the disruptive effects of relapses on patients lives, and the
Although there is controversy in regards to which type of treatment is most successful in regards to initial episodes of schizophrenia disorder, there are also studies looking into whether or not there are issues associated with receiving no treatment at all. Ho et al. (2003) created a study to determine the effect of a first episode of schizophrenia remaining undetected and untreated for more than one year. It was hypothesized by Ho et al. (2003) that if psychosis has toxicity to the human body, psychosis could have detrimental effects on cognitive functioning and the structure of the brain if left untreated. This study included 156 subjects, all who had not had more than three months of previous antipsychotic treatment and all of which were in the midst of their first episode of schizophrenia. The mean amount of time in which the participants went untreated for psychotic symptoms at the beginning of the experiment was 74.3 weeks. Ho et al. (2003) stated that participants were put through a battery of thirty six cognitive tests in which their scores were scored against other standardized scores. The participants were divided into two groups around the median amount of time in which they were untreated since the onset of their symptoms, which was thirteen weeks (Ho et al., 2003). Neurocognitive tests included tests of verbal, memory and motor skills. Ho et al. (2003) stated that in comparison to each other, the two groups did not differ in any of the cognitive categories
In a study by Jackson et al, 1998 in which the therapist engages with the patient shortly after the first psychotic symptoms have subsided. The focus of the therapy is the patient’s adaptation to the psychotic illness and secondary symptoms. Patients who received CBT and those who refused CBT were compared with those who did not qualify for CBT on either of the conditions and who lived outside the region. When compared with the control group those who received CBT adapted better to the illness, understood the illness more (the Explanatory model), scored better on the Quality of Life Scale and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). However the CBT group only outperformed the CBT refusal group on the adaptation to the illness. There was no significant difference in the relapse rates of either group. This particular study is limited by pre-treatment differences. The control group had a mean duration of psychosis of 91 days and the CBT patients 19 days; also the reliability of the study was not reported. Thus this study which focussed on early intervention showed only slight benefit of CBT.
health professional Some residential treatment facilities offer longer-term strategies to those in treatment, teaching things such as life skills, conflict management, stress management skills, and other tactics for coping with psychosis. Therapy for Psychosis Therapy for psychosis often works best when combined with medication, although this is not always