Symptoms And Symptoms Of Ptsd

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Potential reactions following trauma can vary widely across individuals and can include symptoms such as sleep difficulties, somatic symptoms (e.g., energy and appetite impairments), and emotional symptoms (e.g., increased anxious arousal, irritability, outbursts of anger, chronic sad mood or hopelessness). More severe manifestations of post-trauma psychopathology include the development of psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and substance abuse disorders [1-4] and often these disorders are observed to be comorbid in post-trauma patients. As PTSD is often considered the most severe manifestation of post-trauma psychopathology, this review will focus more specifically on…show more content…
Additionally, PTSD is often associated with other co-morbid psychiatric disorders, it carries a high risk for chronicity and individuals with PTSD have a six-fold increase in suicidality [5-6]. A recent meta-analysis of 42 studies with a total of 81,642 participants on long-term remission rates reported an average of 44% of individuals with PTSD at baseline were non-cases at follow up 40 months later without specific treatment. Additionally, remission rates varied across studies between 8 and 89%, studies with the baseline within the first five months following trauma the remission rate was 51.7%, as compared to 36.9% in studies with the baseline later than five months following trauma. [7]. This realization has led to the need for early and/or preventive interventions for PTSD. While some interventions have been proven to be ineffective or even harmful, such as ones developed for delivery immediately following the trauma [8], other psychotherapies delivered after trauma such as cognitive-behavioral [9] and prolonged exposure [10] therapies, have been shown to be moderately effective in reducing symptoms and preventing chronic PTSD.
Although, a staggering 89.7% [11] of Americans are exposed to a significant traumatic event over the course of their lifetime, the majority of trauma-exposed individuals do not develop psychiatric disorders. Lifetime PTSD prevalence using the same event definition for DSM-5 was
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