Symptoms And Symptoms Of Ptsd

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Preliminary Statement Traumatic events and experiences are universal, 60% of men and 51% of women in the general population have reported at least 1 traumatic event in their lives (van der Kolk et al. 2007). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can occur after the exposure to a traumatic event. It affects approximately 1 million Australians in any one year, and 12% of Australians will experience PTSD symptoms in their lifetime (Beyond Blue, 2015). A clinical component of PTSD is the painful re-experience of the traumatic event in the form of intrusive images, nightmares and flashbacks which are often accompanied with avoidant reactions and symptoms of arousal and distress (American Psychiatric Association,…show more content…
EMDR aims to process the ‘frozen’ information of the traumatic event by identifying and concentrating on the distressing experience whilst directing attention to the therapist’s hand movements which elicits back-and-forth eye movements. The rapid eye movement (REM) hypothesis posits that the back-and forth eye movements used in EMDR produce a brain state similar to that produced during REM sleep which is known to generate essential functions such as memory consolidation (Stickgold, 2002). Hence, the eye movements would facilitate and allow for further information processing of the traumatic event which would, consequently, reduce the chronic and distressing symptoms of PTSD (Solomon & Shapiro, 2008). Thus, the theoretical account provides evidence as to how EMDR would be an effective treatment of PTSD symptoms (Van Rood & de Roos, 2009). A substantial amount of empirical research highlights EMDR’s effect on the reduction of PTSD symptoms (Renfrey & Spates, 1994; Rogers et al., 1999; Wilson, Silver, Covi, & Foster, 1996). For example, Rothbaum (1997) randomly assigned 18 adult female rape victims diagnosed with PTSD to an EMDR treatment condition or a wait-list control group who received no treatment. There was a significant decrease of PTSD and depression symptom severity scores in the EMDR participants at

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