What is major depressive disorder? Major depressive disorder is a psychiatric disorder documented in the DSM. Major depressive disorder interferes with an individual's normal functioning in everyday life and causes pain to the person with this disorder and to those close to the person. Individuals with major depressive disorder cannot just "pull themselves out" of this depression on their own and the symptoms accompanied with this disorder can last for weeks, months, and even years (Butcher, Mineka, and Hooley, 2013, p. 221-22). Recognizing the symptoms is critical because most people need treatment to get better.
This case study pertains to a 37 year-old female named Ellen Waters of undisclosed race who appears to be suffering with some form of a depressive disorder. Ellen is a single (never married) graduate student who lives alone and works in home healthcare. Throughout her adult life she has been unable to or uninterested in maintaining a job or a relationship for longer than a few years, and even her current relationship may be waning (the longest she’s had, at about six years). Her early family life was tumultuous; there was heavy domestic strife between her parents, her father abused alcohol, and Ellen reported that both parents emotionally abused her (there is no mention of siblings). Ellen first attempted suicide at age
Despite an increase in the percentage of people who acknowledge symptoms of depression in 2010 in comparison to the 1980’s, according to San Diego State University’s Jean Twenge, there is not an increase in the number of people willing to admit that they suffer from this mood disorder (S.D. University, 2014). Consequently, it leaves one questioning how many of these individuals are proceeding in regular life routines while allowing the disturbances of mood to escalate; thus, increasing the symptoms and effects of major depression (Nevid, 2015, p. 504). According to Nevid, the percentage of those remaining untreated is approximately fifty percent, with the percentages being highest amongst Latinos and African Americans (Nevid, 2015). Additionally, it is known that the recurrence of major depression, which is considered the most common type of depressive disorder, characterized by a downcast disposition, an outlook of insignificance, and a lack of interest to engage in normal activities, is highly likely (Nevid, 2015, p. 505). Moreover, this form of depression is often accompanied by fatigue, sleep issues, changes in eating habits, anxiety, guilt, irritability, concentration difficulties, bodily discomforts, and suicidal thoughts (Nevid, 2015, p. 505).
Christine is a 47-year old married Caucasian female. She currently takes Lexapro, 50mg, and has been taking it for 8 years. She reports a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. She has twice attempted suicide, both times she was under the influence of alcohol and took pills (two handfuls of ibuprofen). She reports to you that she often thinks about “not wanting to be here [alive].” What questions would you ask her? What are things you would consider about her case? What would you report to her prescriber? As her counselor, what would you want to work on?
depression) is a common but serious mood disorder. It causes severe symptoms that affect how
Clinical Depression is another term that is used for MDD. The signs and symptoms present in clinical depression include sadness, tearfulness, emptiness or hopelessness. A person may experience outburst due to anger or agitation. These individuals will become mad over small matters. There are changes and disturbances in sleeping and eating patterns, lack and loss of interest over previously pleasurable activities, and some may even experience physical problems such as back pain and headaches. The most serious symptom that may be present is the thoughts, planning and attempts of suicide. It is extremely important that any one feeling this way is receiving help immediately. Depression can be caused by a number of things, although an exact cause
Recently, critics have questioned the ability of SSRIs to reduce the symptoms of clinical depression. Dr. Hieronymous and his researchers believe high rates of unsuccessful clinical trials additionally fuel negative critiques. The team from University of Gothenburg, Department of pharmacology set out to investigate 32 past trials concerning new medications- many containing similar compounds to those found in common market SSRIs such as Paxil, Prozac, Celexa, and Zoloft. Greater than half of the company-sponsored SSRI trials, using common test protocols, demonstrated significant depression relief regarding active drug versus placebo groups. Their resulting data points out possible depression measuring defects as a possible source of trial failure, rather than solely SSRI drug ineffectiveness.
In the case of Howard, we see a collection of multiple different symptoms going on in which one would believe leads to one or multiple mental disorders. The first one that comes to mind would be the one of a depressive mood disorder. If we look closely at the symptoms that are provided in the case we see that although he does show multiple symptoms that would lead to depressive mood disorder that one would think would be a correct diagnosis, if we look closer into the symptoms and criteria we find that it is false. In order for a person to be diagnosed as having a depressive mood disorder, they must have been in a depressive mood and experiencing at least five of the symptoms that are listed for at least two consecutive weeks. Howard indeed has more than five of the symptoms that have been listed in the DSM-V. The symptoms that Howard exhibits are feeling empty, worthless, losing weight, loss of weight and thoughts of suicide.
Severe depression can have a devastating effects on not only individuals, but also on their families and communities. Depressive disorders when severe or prolonged enough can cause some patients to seek to harm themselves, or worse; to seek to end their lives. While over the last century there have been significant strides in the treatment of depression, there still is much work to be done. May medication that treat depression take a long time for patient to reach therapeutic dosages, mean that patients often have to wait weeks on longer for their symptoms to improve. Because of the significant time for these medication to begin to cause patients depression to enter remission, there is a critical time frame in which patients need help or
Depressive disorders include a group of depressive behaviors characterized by loss of interests in activities and often coupled with unhappiness. Criteria for diagnosing depressive disorders are based on DSM-5 that gives symptoms and periods for different conditions. The clinical criteria cannot function alone it is accompanied psychological and physical evaluation to eliminate diseases that mimic depression. Depressive disorders are caused by a combination of factors including environmental, genetic, biochemical and psychological factors. The interaction cause depressive episodes in individuals. The exhibited symptoms vary from individual to individual they include lack of interest in activities, fatigue, altered sleep patterns, change in appetite, feelings of worthlessness and also suicidal thoughts. Types of depressive disorders include Major Depressive Disorder, Persistent Depressive Disorder, and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder among others. Treatment includes forms of therapy like psychotherapy and drugs depending on the severity of depression. Family and friends are important in recovery of depressed individuals by offering support needed to follow prescriptions and support during recovery. Depressive disorders are diverse, but they all affect the wellbeing of individuals in relation to their work, social relations, and education needs (NIH, 2015).
Nearly twenty million people suffer from depression in the United States each year. Depression is often overlooked and undetected by health care providers. Patients with depression experience a long-term, intense feeling of sadness that interferes with their daily lives. Other symptoms leading to a diagnosis include changes in appetite, problems falling and staying asleep, feelings of hopelessness or helplessness, decrease in energy, change in behavior and mood, and frequent thoughts of death and suicide. However, once identified and diagnosed, clinical depression can be treated. Treatment comes in traditional, pharmacological antidepressants as well as alternative, non-pharmacological methods. This paper will address and compare treatment options as well as examine depression from a Biblical worldview and in the nursing role. This is in hopes to better identify and treat depression in patients, better educate patients of treatment options, and help patients to lean on God as the ultimate healer. [Pathophysiology-etiology and manifestations]ADD
Whilst symptoms of depression are present in many mental health conditions, major depressive episodes (MDE) feature more highly in both bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Some experts argue it is diagnostically challenging to make a differential diagnosis due to the clinical presentation of a MDE in a bipolar patient often having little to distinguish it from that of a patient with MDD (Almeida & Phillips, 2013; Hirschfeld, 2014). This diagnostic challenge has contributed to BD being both under-recognised and often misdiagnosed as MDD (Hirschfeld, 2014; Leonpacher, et al., 2015). Additionally, there are everyday barriers practitioners face such as limited time for diagnostic evaluation, directing patients to critical therapies, including the variety of potential symptoms and limitations in DSM-5 (Culpepper, 2014). The results of inaccurate diagnosis and inappropriate treatments can lead to seriously harmful outcomes for patients, including suicide (Almeida & Phillips, 2013; Hirschfeld, 2014). The DSM-5 protocol is designed to improve a clinician 's accuracy through the broadening of its categorisation compared to that of DSM-IV. Some experts have suggested that the accuracy of diagnosis could be greatly increased by the use of both a dimensional and categorical classification approach and more probabilistic models, as well as using neuroimaging to identify biomarkers of bipolar disorder. This would ultimately optimise clinical and functional
According to the National Institute of Mental Health there are several forms. There is major depression severe symptoms that interfere with your ability to work, sleep, and study, eat, and enjoy life. An episode can occur only once in a person’s lifetime, but more often, a person has several episodes. There is persistent depressive disorder which is depressed mood that lasts for at least 2 years.
Depression most people will go through a form of it at least once in their life. Most of the time, though this will be a smaller case which is not very evident in their life. But in Shiloh you will see not just a minor form of depression but also some more major forms of it pop up its ugly head. And how is this? Well in Shiloh we are living inside of Leroy’s head, and we see through his head many types of depression, including; Atypical Depression, Bipolar Disorder, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD).
Depression is determined when a person has negative feelings towards them self for a long period of time, according to the DSM5 if someone is feeling helpless and empty or if someone around notices they are quieter than usual or if they seem tearful on a regular basis, or in younger people increased mood swings or even weight loss more that 5% per month (DSM 2010).