Symptoms And Treatment Of Alzheimer 's Disease

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Introduction The neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is currently the most common cause of dementia and affects millions of people around the world.¹ There are multiple risk factors associated with AD, including genetic factors, hypertension, diet and most significantly, age. Individuals over the age of 65 are most vulnerable to the disease and at this point, the risk increases every 5 years.¹ Alzheimer’s Disease was first described over 100 years ago by Alois Alzheimer in Germany, characterising the first case with memory impairments and the presence of neuropathological plaques and tangles, which today, are major indications of the disease.² Progressive memory loss is the clinical trademark of AD but eventually, cognitive function also deteriorates.³ The neuropathological trademarks of AD involve the accumulation of β amyloid (Aβ) proteins expressed as plaques and the phosphorylation of tau proteins expressed as neurofibrillary tangles.³ The formation of these plaques and tangles are estimated to begin 20 years before clinical symptoms arise.² MRI studies have shown the association of AD with hippocampal atrophy, however, it remains difficult to distinguish from other forms of dementia.⁴ However, this pathology is also known to be present without the impairment of cognitive function.⁵ Recently, there has been a number of studies investigating this incongruity between pathology and cognition, all of which reported similar dissonance, remarkably in older
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