Symptoms And Treatment Of Bipolar Disorder Essay

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Bipolar disorder is a major mood disorder that includes the cycling of two parts; acute mania and bipolar depression. There are many factors that affect the onset of bipolar disorder, such as genetics, environment, and dysfunction in the brain. Due to its two-part nature, various drugs have been used as antidepressants or antipsychotics. Unfortunately, not all drugs have the ability to target both aspects of bipolar disorder. As of right now there are various pharmacotherapeutics for bipolar disorder, but two of the most widely used are Lithium treatments or Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). These are some of the primary treatments for bipolar disorder and even more pharmacotherapeutics and methods are being developed to ensure that patients are utilizing them properly.
There are many psychotropic drugs that have been tested over the years. Some drugs with therapeutic effects aimed at the mania aspect of bipolar or the depression aspect of the disorder. Lithium, is one of the first drugs to be specifically used for individuals with bipolar disorder. When taking this drug, a lithium ion is used to interact with the various neurons. The exact mechanism is still being discovered, but according to a review, “the candidate cellular targets of lithium appear to be enzymes such as inositol phosphatases and glycogen synthase,” (Li et al., 2011, p. 78). Further studies have also included Lithium effects as, “...demonstrated efficacy in reducing both the frequency and
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