Symptoms And Treatment Of Breast Cancer

1032 Words Aug 8th, 2016 5 Pages
Breast cancers are classified by several classifications as:
- Histopathology
- Grades
- Stages
- Receptor status. Each of these influences the prognosis and can affect treatment response. Description of a breast cancer optimally includes all of these factors:

• Histopathology:
Breast cancer is usually classified primarily by its histological appearance. Most breast cancers are derived from the epithelium lining the ducts or lobules, and these cancers are classified as ductal or lobular carcinoma (Robert and Justin, 2003c).
Grade:
Grading compares the appearance of the breast cancer cells to the appearance of normal breast tissue. Cancerous cells lose that differentiation. Cell division becomes uncontrolled. Cell nuclei become less uniform. Pathologists describe cells as well differentiated (low grade), moderately differentiated (intermediate grade), and poorly differentiated (high grade) (Carlson et al., 2009).
• Stage:
Breast cancer staging using the TNM system is based on the size of the tumor (T), whether or not the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes (N) in the armpits, and whether the tumor has metastasized (M). Larger size, nodal spread, and metastasis have a larger stage number and a worse prognosis (Carlson et al., 2009).
• Receptor status:
Breast cancer cells have receptors on their surface and in their cytoplasm and nucleus. Chemical messengers such as hormones bind to receptors, and this causes changes in the cell. Breast cancer cells may or may not have…
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