Symptoms And Treatment Of Chronic Kidney Disease

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Chronic kidney disease is defined as renal damage that has resulted in a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 ml/min and has persisted longer than three months. The disease is irreversible and treatment must be maintained to preserve the quality of life. Management involves eliminating or controlling factors that may potentially cause additional damage to the kidneys. The leading cause of chronic kidney disease is diabetes mellitus, followed by untreated systemic hypertension. Less common causes include glomerulonephritis, cystic kidney disease, and urologic diseases. An age-related decline in the GFR is common but more likely due to a vascular disease rather than trauma to the kidney. Chronic renal disease is broken down into five stages with Stage 1 being the most acute and Stage 5, end-stage renal disease, being the most severe. At end-stage survival depends on renal replacement therapy. (K & S., 2011)The nursing goal is to protect the existing renal function, slow the disease progression, prevent complications, reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and provide patient comfort. During the first two stages of chronic renal failure the patient is mainly asymptomatic with a normal GFR. Polyuria may be present but is likely secondary to diabetes, not necessarily kidney disease. As the disease progresses to the third stage hypertension manifests along with fatigue, fluid retention, anemia, and anorexia that leads to malnutrition. When the GRF drops below 15
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