Symptoms And Treatment Of Diabetic Screening Tests

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Introduction In 2012, 29.1 million Americans, or 9.3% of the United States population, had diabetes. Nearly 28% of those with diabetes were undiagnosed (“Statistics about diabetes”, 2014). Diabetes remains one of the leading causes of death, but minimal attention has been given to the screening opportunities that exist in acute-care settings for undiagnosed patients. This has been largely due to the misconception that hyperglycemia in the acute setting is a common occurrence related to stress and does not warrant any special consideration. According to Dugan (2009), “stress hyperglycemia is defined as a transient elevation of the blood glucose due to the stress of illness and typically resolves spontaneously” (1798). Despite stress…show more content…
The criterion used to differentiate which articles would be included was based on year of publication and type of source. The parameters for the search were articles from peer-reviewed journals published within the last five years. Search results were fairly limited regardless of what key terms were used, which suggests that there is limited research on the topic of undiagnosed diabetes. On average, the number of studies that fit the subject area were less than fifty. The literature review was limited to five research articles. Patients in the emergency department are at high risk for undiagnosed diabetes; in one study, nearly four out of five patients in an urban emergency department (ED) met the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria for diabetes screening (Mcnaughton, 2011, p. 56). In addition, ED patients with risk factors for diabetes (age of 45 years older, polyuria, and polydipsia) and a random blood glucose greater than 155mg/dl were later diagnosed with prediabetes or diabetes (Mcnaughton, 2011, p. 56). According to Dugan (2009), “patients with stress hyperglycemia are at higher risk of adverse consequences than are those with pre-existing diabetes” (p. 1798). Acute glucose fluctuations induce more ischemic injury, inflammation, cellular apoptosis, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress responses (Dugan, 2009, p. 1802). One
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