Symptoms And Treatment Of Mitral Valve Stenosis

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Mitral Valve Stenosis
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (2015), heart disease is the primary cause of death in both men and women in the United States. The CDC (2015) reported about 610,000 Americans die from heart disease each year.
According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), (2015), mitral valve stenosis (MVS) is a heart disease in which the mitral valve does not fully open; therefore, less blood flows to the body. Ray and Chambers (2014) stated the most widely known reason for MVS worldwide is rheumatic heart disease. Severe MVS is life-threatening and can lead to heart failure if left untreated (NLM, 2015). MVS may be controlled with treatment and improved with valvuloplasty or surgery (NLM, 2015). MVS is less common in the United States due to the proper treatment of patients with streptococcal infections, but MVS is still prevalent in developing countries (NLM, 2015).
Disease Process
Anatomy and Physiology
The heart chambers have four valves categorized as atrioventricular or semilunar valves (Elisha, 2014). The atrioventricular valves include the tricuspid and mitral valves (Elisha, 2014). The semilunar valves include the aortic and pulmonary valves (Elisha, 2014). The tricuspid valve, located within the right atrioventricular orifice, lies between the right atrium (RA) and the right ventricle (RV) (Elisha, 2014). The mitral valve situated in the left atrioventricular orifice between the left atrium (LA) and left
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