Symptoms And Treatment Of Pain

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Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and affective experience associated with tissue damage. Pain is a major symptom in many medical conditions and is one of the most sited reasons why people seek medical assistance (Peterson & Bredow 2009). When pain is poorly managed, it can delay healing and recovery. Using the proper nursing assessment skill is very important to assess a patient’s pain level, and determine the best intervention to reduce or eliminate it. Middle range theory such as Pain: a balance between analgesia and side effects and the theory of unpleasant symptoms (TOUS) helps interpret and serves as a tool used in assessing patients in nursing practice.
Background of Pain Theory During the 17th century, scientists proposed various theories of ways pain events are transmitted to the brain. In 1965, Melzack and Wall published the Gate Control Theory. With this theory, it was understood that pain had a psychological component that could reduce its transmission in the body. The theory was further explored, which revealed to researchers the different types of pain receptors and how pain affects the human body. This new discovery helped clinicians and nurses treat acute pain with pain medications (Peterson & Bredow 2009). With a paradigm shift was the notion that pain alleviation by nurses required an integrated prescriptive approach which was proposed by Drs. Good and Moore with their theory of pain. The theory specifies actions that

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