Symptoms And Treatment Of Ptsd Symptoms

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Measures Several questionnaires were completed by participants who were determined to exhibit PTSD symptoms. The questionnaires in which we utilized included the following: the Veterans Affairs TBI screening instrument; the VAMSTA; the PHQ-9; the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; and the Quality of Life Interview. These questionnaires presented us with information from participants’ self-reports to determine whether exposure to a blast injury or concussion led to their PTSD symptoms. The VA TBI screening instrument is a four-section tool based on a measure designed for active duty military personnel. Examples of the screening questions are presented in Table 1. Veterans were able to endorse multiple problems in each section. Those who endorsed at least one problem under all four sections were designated as having positive TBI screens and, as required by VA policy, were tracked for a comprehensive evaluation. This comprehensive, standardized evaluation entailed a detailed history, physical examination, and assessment of current symptoms by a clinician with TBI specialty expertise (Carlson, Nelson, Orazem, Nugent, Cifu, & Sayer, 2010). The individual instruments included in the VAMSTA are battery tests which include 2 measures of PTSD symptomatology: the Short Form Mississippi Scale and the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M). The Short Form Mississippi Scale is a 13-item, 5-point self-report scale with response alternatives typically ranging from “never (scored
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