Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment / Prognosis, And The Prevention Of Tb

2809 Words Nov 14th, 2014 12 Pages
Tuberculosis (TB) is an acute or chronic bacterial infection caused by several micro-organisms, of which the most common is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) also known as tuberculosis bacillus. Worldwide, TB is responsible for the most causes of death out of any infectious disease. It is currently estimated that two billion people, globally, are infected with the disease among which there are 15 million infected people in the United States. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) (2014), in 2013 worldwide, nine million people exhibited signs for active TB while one and a half million deaths were attributed to the disease. Although modern vaccines and antibiotics have greatly decreased the mortality rate of the disease, the threat of TB remains a serious global health issue. This paper will explore the causes, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment/prognosis, and the prevention of TB. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a slow growing (12-18 hour generation time), non-motile, gram-resistant (hydrophobic cell wall), pleomorphic rod bacterium (Chang, 2008). Because of the hydrophobic nature of their cell wall, they are known as acid-fast bacilli (AFB), making them difficult to stain for visualization. Although there are many different strains of the tuberculosis bacteria, MTB is most often responsible for infecting humans, while mycobacterium bovis is pathogenic for animals (Daniel, 1999). Tuberculosis is passed from an infected person to a non-infected person through…
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