Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is commonly found in urban areas of Southeast Asian and African countries. This disease was first identified in Tanzania in the early 1950s. Frequently, outbreaks of Chikungunya fever have only been described in South Asian and African countries, which are located in tropical and subtropical zones close to the equator. However, this does not stop the disease from traveling to other parts of the world. In 2007, there were 205 laboratory-confirmed cases in Italy, making this the first outbreak in a temperate zone. Most cases of the disease tend to appear in densely populated areas, allowing efficient transmission of the pathogen. The first cases of Chikungunya fever in the Americas and Caribbean Islands were reported in late 2013. The causing agent of the Chikungunya fever is the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). It is an enveloped virus with a positive polar single stranded RNA that belongs to the genus Alphavirus. These types of viruses are often transmitted to humans from mosquitoes infected with the viruses.
Alphaviruses, including Sindbis virus (SINV) and Semliki Forest virus (SFV), are major contributors to the group of Arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses). Circulating mainly in a sylvatic, enzootic cycle, CHIKV occasionally spills over into human populations starting in rural areas with small outbreaks. Migration of infected individuals probably results in urban introduction. CHIKF is a zoonotic and vector borne disease. Its major transmission