Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ( Sle )

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Lupusnephritis (LN) Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory disease, immune-complex-mediated multi-systemic autoimmune condition of multifactorial etiology (Mak and Tay 2014). LN is an inflammatory condition affecting the kidneys which is caused by SLE, an autoimmune disease that is more common among women. About half of all people with SLE develop lupus nephritis, and of these about 1/10 experience chronic kidney disease or kidney failure (Henderson et al. 2012). Epidemiology of Lupus nephritis: Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) is a rare but severe autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement, the incidence is 0.3/100000-0.9/100000 children-per year with a prevalence of 3.3/100000-8.8/100000 withhigher frequency in Asians, African Americans, Hispanics, and native Americans where Median age of onset of cSLE is between 11 and 12 years (rare below 5 years), and 80% of patients are female (Sinha and Raut 2014). cSLE follows a more severe disease course than adult-onset SLE, with higher morbidity and lower survival rates (Levy and Kamphuis 2012). LN is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in SLE patients (Saxena et al. 2011). 60% of lupus patients will develop clinically LN at some time in the course of their illness (Appel et al. 2007). The incidence and prevalence of LN are variable depending on the studied population. The LN cumulative incidence is higher in people of Asian (55%), African (51%), and Hispanic (43%),
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