Synthesis of t-Pentyl Chloride
Using SN1 reaction mechanism with hydrochloric acid, t-Pentyl alcohol was converted to t-Pentyl chloride in an acid catalyzed reaction. The reaction took place in a separatory funnel designed to separate immiscible liquids. The crude product was extracted by transferring a solute from one solvent to another. The process of washing the solutions by phase transfer was used in order to remove impurities from the main solvent layer. Finally, the crude product was dried with anhydrous Calcium chloride and purified once more by simple distillation technique.
Results and Discussion:
Main reaction(s) and Mechanism(s):
Mechanism: Table of Reactants and…show more content…
Once inverted, built-up gas was released by turning the stopcock to its opened and closed positions. This was repeated for about four times in one minute intervals. Then the layers were allowed to settle until a separation between liquids could be observed. Due to the low density of the product, the top layer was to be extracted. The bottom layer was carefully and slowly extracted out of the separatory funnel.
The crude product was washed by taking the reaction product in the separatory funnel and adding 23 mL of deionized H2O. The mixture was shaken and allowed to settle until layers were observable. The top layer was the desired product and approximately 25 mL of aqueous layer was extracted from the separatory funnel. Next, 25 mL of 5% NaHCO3 was added to the separatory funnel in order to neutralize the acid. This mixture was swirled, plugged with the stopper and inverted. Built-up gas was released by turning the stopcock to its opened and closed positions, releasing CO2 by-product. This was done four times in one minute intervals. The solution was allowed to settle until layers were observable. The bottom layer that contained salt, base and water was extracted from the separatory funnel. The crude product was washed again as mentioned previously.
The wet, crude product was placed into the 50 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Small amounts of CaCl2 were added to dry the solution. The flask was sealed and the mixture was swirled and left to settle. Once