The conquests of Alexander the Great Alexander won a reputation for military genius when he became king of Antigonus ruled over Asia minor, Macedonia and Thrace and in 306 BC he declared himself king of the Macedonians "The Seleucids moved to control and reform the pre-existing Persian bureaucracy, installing Greek officials and switching from clay tablets to parchment and from cuneiform to Greek or Aramaic" (Stewart, 2004).. Antigonos' attempts to take control of the whole of Alexander's empire led to his death. His son, Demetrius managed to regain control of Macedon a few yeas later but lost his throne and died in prison.
Revolt of the Maccabees and the Rise of the Hasmonean Dynasty (165-163 BC) Alexander the Great of Macedon died in 323 B.C.E., marking the beginnings of a great political transition both in the region of Palestine as well as the Macedonian Empire as a whole. While the nation of Israel experienced foreign dominance during the Persian period (538-322 B.C.E.), Alexander’s death brought a unique struggle for power in the region as his generals (the Diadochi) attempted to maintain control of the fragmented empire. Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian general who ruled in Egypt, defeated general Antigonus in 301 B.C.E, and as a result was given control of the region of Palestine at the agreement of the Diadochi. Nevertheless, conflict arose between Ptolemy I Soter and Seleucus I Nicator since the latter, a post-Alexander ruler of Syria, claimed the agreement between the Diadochi and Ptolemy regarding Palestine was void. A series of military conflicts were then waged over control of the Palestine region for the better part of a century, and yet the interior region was largely left unaffected, leaving Jerusalem to thrive both financially and politically under Ptolemaic rule.
Yuan Empire - Empire in China and Siberia, created by Khubilai Khan. Destroyed the Southern Song and invaded the Kingdom of Champa.
Immediately after the Classical Era of World History, the period that came along was the Postclassical Period. This period, within the year 500 CE and 1450 CE, was built up by “third-wave civilizations”. In other words, it was built up by large empires characterized by constant patterns of change, trade, and considerable changes in technologies. In 1492 CE these civilizations got global, meaning that the interactions among these different societies stopped being regional. Two empires who were very important during the Postclassical Period were the Byzantine Empire and China. Geographically these civilizations were far apart, but as they developed, they became two of the most influential empires of the time. Also, as they developed they
The Ottoman Empire and the Mongols controlled major trade routes, making it easy to trade with other countries. The Ottoman Empire and the Mongolian Empire both valued trade and protected its major trade routes from bandits and raiders. The Ottoman Empire controlled Constantinople, which was a big trade city bordering the Black sea and the Mediterranean sea. The Mongols controlled the silk road, which connected China to other asian and mediterranean countries.
In the 13 century, the Middle East was controlled mainly by non-Arab dynasty. In fact, the Mongol horde vanished the Abbasid in the battle of Bagdad as mentioned by John green in his video “Wait For it…The Mongols!” .The Mongol empire will become the bigger unified territorially empire of all history (British empire was an Maritime empire, Thalassocracy ).The Ayoubide (Kurdish dynasty) overthrow the Fatimid’s and took Egypt. In North Africa, Berber dynasty rise, such as the Almohades. In Anatolia, Turkish clan had established independent state. They migrated because of the call of Muslim sultan to fight the Mongol (BBC) .The Ottoman was one of this clan and it will become the strongest Empire that humanity known. Both Mongols and Ottomans had a huge impact in Arabic speaking lands politically, economically, religiously and socially.
Parthinians/Sassanids: The Parthinian Empire bordered Rome and took over part of Alexander the Great’s empire. Persians overthrew the Parthinians and created the Sassanid Empire. The Sassanid Empire preserved much of Persian culture. These two empires connected the Mediterranean with the East. But, the Arabs eventually defeated the Sassanids.
Evidence: Pax Mongolica This happened under the Mongol Empire and its occupied territories This allowed for the thriving of the Silk Road trading(between Asia and Europe) Low tariffs on the Silk road and fewer political entities to cross increased trade cultural interchange and wealth for all
In the fourth century BC, rapid cultural, economic, social, and political changes were occurring in the Mediterranean and Asia Minor as a result of the conquests of Alexander the Great. In 337 BC, Alexander the Third inherited the Macedonian kingdom after his father, Philip the Second, died. Philip the Second has already taken control over all of Greece, and Alexander used the manpower and money from this to expand even further, into Persia. Beginning in 334 BC, Alexander started an intense campaign through Persia, concurring city after city. Eventually, Alexander had conquered all of Persia and forced the Persian king Darius the third to the city of Ecbatana, where he was killed. Instead of returning to Greece after his victory over the Persian
Mongolia, but there were also some harsh times, like with Genghis Khan and his reign. They
Alexander’s defeat of the Persian Empire allowed the spread of Greek settlement into the East. Even though there is no evidence that shows Alexander promoted a policy of Hellenization, Greek culture still came into western Asia as the result of his conquests, and western Asia, all the way up to the Mesopotamian frontier, became a part of the Greek world. This is one of Alexander’s most certain and unintentional historical achievements.
But soon when the full Arab force arrived they werquickly dispatched. From 900-1050 CE the Rajputs Controlled most of the Afghani area, until they were overthrown by the Ghazni’s. The Ghaznavids then ruled until 1148 when they fell out of power, not to come back until half a century later. Various princes attempted a rule of the area but made no notable progress until the Shah Muhammad of Khwarezmid Empire conquered all of Persia and continued the conquest, but in 1219 the Persian Empire had fallen to the Mongolian Army led by Khan. Not long after the Timurids came into the Afghanistan area and ruled, bringing a strict, but prosperous rule, moving the capital to Herat. In the early 16th century the empire began to decline, but not before restoring an infrastructure. For 300 years the Afghan tribes invade india and created vast afghan-indo mixes. Soon after in the 16th Century western Afghanistan was reverted back to Persian rule. From the start of the middle ages to around 1750, part of Afghanistan was recognized and named as Khorasan. Areas around hindustan and the Hindu Kush mountains were finally recognized as Afghanistan. In the 16th to the 17th Century Afghanistan was divided up into 3 major areas. The North was ruled under
After the death of Alexander the Great the empire was divided among four of his generals. Ptolemy took Palestine and Seleucus took Syria. Antiochus the Great took over the Seleucid throne and challenged the Egyptian dominance of Palestine. He was welcomed by the Jewish people because he gave them special favors, but that ended when Antiochus Epiphanes took over the throne in 175 B.C.E. He wanted all of his people to speak the Greek language, worship Greek gods, and follow Greek customs (cite book pg. 336). This outraged the Jewish
Thousands died during their return because of heat exhaustion as they traveled through the desert in the summer. In 323 BCE on June 7, Alexander the Great died. He was 33 years old. It is unknown as to how he died, though many speculate he died of a fever while others say he died of alcohol poisoning. Ancient accounts say Alexander had a high fever after going to a party. Alexander died before he was able to name a successor to his empire. After his death, his empire was split into four parts, each part given to four of his generals. Lysimachus took control of Thrace and part of Asia Minor. Cassander took control of Macedonia and Greece. Ptolemy took Egypt, and Seleucus took the remaining part of Asia. During Alexander’s conquests and campaigns, he spread the Hellenic culture throughout the areas he conquered. He also accomplished the feat of creating a large empire that was united through a similar culture. In his empire, Alexander founded many cities with Greek sounding names and had them modeled after Greek cities. One such city is Alexandria, which had streets like those in Greece and had a temple dedicated to the Greek god
Afghanistan is a country that is mysterious to many outsiders. From the harsh landscape to the traditional social norms shared by its people, Afghanistan continues to mystify the world. The country’s unique location has influenced its history and people, and that of the nations and armies that have tried