Taking a Look at Amphotecering B (AmB)

630 WordsFeb 24, 20182 Pages
Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene macrolide antibiotic, is highly effective against various Leishmania species and is currently recommended as first line treatment for the visceral form (Dea-Ayuela et al., 2004). Amphoteric nature of AmB contributed by its hydrophobic (the polyene hydrocarbon chain) and hydrophilic (the polyhydroxyl chain) domains, is responsible for poor aqueous and organic solubility, and intercalation into cell membranes to elicit drug's pharmacological effects (Milhaud et al., 2002). To sort out insolubility and non-absorbability problems conventional AmB formulation Fungizone® (a complex with bile salt deoxycholate) is available. However, toxic side effects, in particular, hemotoxicity and azotemia which occurs in around 80% cases and renal tubular damage at therapeutic doses have often limited its clinical applications (Wasko et al., 2012). The appropriate delivery system would have an unique advantage in overcoming toxic manifestations on normal body functions caused by direct exposure of the drug and to improve its therapeutic efficacy. It was thought that lipid based formulations could be the best approach where association of the drug within the lipid molecules would protect the vital organs from direct exposure of the drug. In some earlier reports, it was claimed that liposomal carriers were much less toxic than Fungizone® which opened the gate for development of AmB-liposomal formulations (Larabi et al., 2004). This ultimately resulted in three

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