Taking a Look at Cloning

2221 WordsFeb 23, 20189 Pages
“A clone is an identical genetic copy of a biological entity.” (LaPensee, 2012) Clones are defined as an identical genetic copy, however, clones do not always look identical. This is due to the different ways that genes are interpreted and the role the environment plays in how an organism develops (LaPensee, 2012). Although the term 'clone' was not used until 1963 in a speech, the investigation into genetics had begun much earlier with the work of August Weismann in the late 1880s (LaPensee, 2012). Weismann proposed that cell differentiation would reduce the genetic information contained within a cell. This theory pervaded until 1902 when the German embryologist Hans Spelmann showed how split salamander embryos could still grow to adulthood (LaPensee, 2012). The past of cloning has many significant events. The first significant event occurred in 1996 when Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell and colleagues create the first cloned mammal, a sheep they named Dolly (Back Story, 2013). In 2001, President George W. Bush banned federal funding for research that uses stem cells, with the exception of a small number of existing cell lines. The decision severely restricted stem cell research in the US, this decision was reversed in 2009 by President Barack Obama (Back Story, 2013). A few years later, in 2011, researchers tried to create human embryonic stem cells using nuclear transfer, but the eggs would either stall out after only a few divisions or need an extra set of chromosomes to grow
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