It is a glycoalkaloid. It is a poison. It is present in the nightshade family i.e Solanaceae especially in species tomato and potato. Solanine is found naturally in many parts of plants e.g tubers, leaves and fruits. It also has pesticidal and fungicidal characteristics. It also act as a natural defence system of plant. Firstly it was extracted in 1820 from a berry i.e Solanum nigram.
Solanine poisoning and it's symptoms primary symptoms of solanine poisoning are neurological and gastrointestinal disorders.
Other symptoms may be vomiting,burning of throat, nausea, cardiac dysrythmia, diarrhea, nightmare, dizziness, stomach cramps and a common symptom headache.
Hypothermia, fever, dilated pupils, hallucination,paralysis and losss of sensation occur in very severe cases and somtimes death can also accur.
Way of action
A result of a study show that the mechanism of solanine toxicity is mainly due to it's chemical interaction with the membranes of mitochondria. It is shown by experiments that when solanine is exposed, it result in opening of pottassium channels of mitochondrial membrane, in it's result the membrane potential is decreased and then Ca 2+ are transported from mitochondria to the cytoplasm due to which concentration of Ca 2+ is increased in the cytoplasm which result in the apoptosis i.e cell death and cell damage.
Solanine in potatoes solanine is found naturally in the speacies of genus Solanum e.g egg plant, tomato and potato
In potatoes, 2 type