Taking a Look at Staphylococcus Aureus

2022 Words Feb 26th, 2018 8 Pages
aureus has evolved to become resistant to a number of antimicrobial treatments. Most notably, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have acquired the mecA gene, encoding the penicillin binding protein (PBP2a), which confers resistance to oxacillin and all β-lactam antibiotics 2. These characteristics, combined with other virulence factors, have made MRSA infections difficult to treat, and lead to MRSA being recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality 3. MRSA is also the leading cause of nosocomial infections4–6, contributing significantly to increased healthcare costs 7. CDC estimated in 2008 that MRSA was responsible for 89,785 cases of disease, causing 15,249 deaths in the US8.

MRSA can cause a variety of infections ranging from non-invasive skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) (i.e. furuncles, abscesses, and folliculitis) to invasive infections such a bacteremia, meningitis, and osteomyelitis. Historically, MRSA infections have been categorized into two specific types: healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA) and community-associated (CA-MRSA) based on clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory criteria. These definitions have continued to evolve, and now, at least three MRSA categories are accepted which describe the epidemiological etiology of the infection. First,…