The colonies were smooth, translucent, and had a white brownish color. The Gram stain resulted in Gram positive cocci. After the Gram stain was completed, the bacteria were streaked on a Mannitol-Salt Agar plate and a Catalase test was performed. After these test were completed a Phenol Red Dextrose Fermentation tube was inoculated, and a SIM Tube inoculated.
This experiment was conducted to find the genus and species of an unknown bacteria prescribed by the lab teacher, which was unknown bacteria GA3 in my case. Identification of unknown bacteria techniques are used on an every day basis to figure out what type of bacteria it is and to find the best method of how to treat a patient with this bacteria (1). All five “I’s” of Microbiology were used in the testing for the unknown culture. Inoculation was used several times to put the unknown culture into agar plates or into biochemical test tubes. After Inoculation of these tubes or plates, they always were placed into the incubator for further growth and development. Isolation was used to make sure we got the correct bacteria we were testing for. After each further isolation, we gram stained the culture and inspected the culture under a microscope to further help in the identification process of the unknown bacteria. Multiple tests were done on the unknown culture to make sure we were confident in what kind of bacteria the unknown was.
The Staphylococcus aureus bacteria belongs to the Staphylococcaceae family. It is small, round shaped, and non-motile. Staphylococcus aureus stains gram positive and can often be found in small clusters (Mandal, 2010). It often forms chains and is a large contributor of soft tissue infections. It is of a yellow color, hence the name ?aureus? which comes from the Latin term ?aurum? for gold (Orenstein, n.d.). Staphylococcus aureus is found in a few spots on the human body, such as the nasal passage, the skin, the oral cavity, and even the gastrointestinal tract. Staphylococci and Streptococci are two different strands of the bacteria and are very hard to distinguish from one another. In order to tell the difference between them, without a microscope, a catalase test needs to be performed. The test is undergone by adding 3% hydrogen peroxide to both samples. Since Staphylococci are catalase positive, meaning they produce catalase, they will produce O? while the Streptococci will not because Streptococci are catalase negative (Todar, n.d.).
The unknown bacterium did not produce any spores as was evident by the endospore stain. B. subtilis (positive controls) was capable of producing spores in the NSM agar plate while no spores were formed by E. coli (negative control). The spore-former Sporosarcina was eliminated from the list of the possible genera. In the blood agar test, it was determined that the bacterium was gamma-hemolytic when it was compared to the gamma-hemolytic control S. epidermidis and beta-hemolytic control S. aureus. Since most species of Streptococcus are either alpha or beta-hemolytic, the negative result of the blood agar hemolysins led to the elimination of Streptococcus (8). These tests narrowed the possible genus to
What are these other serious illnesses that are caused by group A Streptococcus? What is group A Streptococcus? Group A streptococci are bacteria commonly found in the throat and on the skin. The vast majority of GAS infections are relatively mild illnesses, such as strep throat and impetigo. Occasionally, however, these bacteria can cause much more severe and even life threatening diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis (occasionally described as "the flesh-eating bacteria") and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). In addition, people may carry group A streptococci in the throat or on the skin and have no symptoms of disease.
Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A streptococcus (GAS), is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that most commonly causes respiratory disease, including pharyngitis or tonsillitis, as well as skin infections such as impetigo and cellulitis. The organism is transmitted via respiratory droplets or by contact with fomites, and commonly infects young children. In addition to the common clinical presentations associated with S. pyogenes, some individuals develop the postinfectious sequelae of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis. Due to the severity of these medical consequences, prophylactic antibiotic use is often recommended for any patients with otherwise mild S. pyogenes infections (21).
Group B Streptococcus agalactiae is an important Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that cause a wide variety of clinical infections, ranging from septicemia to meningitis. The reported lethality of severe S. agalactiae infections is ranging from 4 to 6% in the United States. Of note, it has been suggested that the incidence of neonatal disease is considerably greater than reported, because the requirement for positive cultures from blood or cerebrospinal fluid may underestimates the true burden of disease. Therefore, in this review I focused on virulence factors of S. agalactiae in order to elucidate aspects of the infection.
Streptococcus Pyogenes is a very diverse bacteria with effects ranging from nothing or a mild sore throat, to flesh eating disease, causing death in 40-60% of patients. The major and most common illnesses associated with this bacteria
Commonly referred to as strep bacteria.” (Streptococci and streptococcal Infections). Streptococci are normal bacterial residents on the skin and mucous surfaces outside or inside humans. Streptococcus contains a variety of species some of which cause disease in humans and other animals.
Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as strep throat, is an infection in the back of the throat and tonsils that causes pain, fever, red and enlarged lymph nodes, and in some cases a sandpaper-like rash known as scarlet fever. This infection typically takes one to three days to breakout after exposure and the symptoms last seven to ten days. Streptococcal pharyngitis is treated with antibiotics and pain medication. Streptococcal pharyngitis is caused by a bacteria known as group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. It is spread through direct or close contact with the bacteria. This is the reason that the infection spreads so rapidly in schools or other crowded areas.
Strep Throat is a bacterial infection caused by the bacteria Streptococcus, Although it isn't very fatal it is easily caught by people of all ages although mainly by children the infection may spread and cause a high and dangerous fever of over 101 degrees. It is spread from person to person by coughing and sneezing and causes most notably a sore throat and inflammation. It is most common in kids anywhere from 5 to 15 years old, The bacterium may cause tonsils to swell and other complications due to it spreading inside the body.
Streptococcus pyogenes is a very common bacteria found in humans. It is very transmissible and can be caught through the air via coughing or sneezing. This form of Strep. illness is referred to as Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as Strep. throat, which can complicate into Scarlet Fever. It is also possible to be infected through abrasions of the skin, which can result in cellulitis, impetigo, or even necrotizing fasciitis. Aside from human to human contact, these bacteria can also be found in unpasteurized milk. There is no vaccine for Streptococcal infections, though antibiotics such as penicillin still work very well against them.
Streptococcus thermophilus is a type of gram-positive bacterium that is primarily found in yogurt and cheese products. The term "strepto" means bent or twisted, and the term "coccus" means berry, and this bacterium, Streptococcus thermophilus, looks like many chains of berries. This bacterium first came around and into the spotlight in the year 1907 by Russian biologist Elie Metchnikoff (Taylor, 2007). She stated that this specific type of bacterium helped improve gastrointestinal health. Some of the benefits from Streptococcus thermophilus includes improving one's digestion by improving lactose digestion and decreasing IBS symptoms (Jerkunica, 2009-2015). Also, Streptococcus thermophilus helps improve one's immunity, such as preventing and
A gram stain is performed from the sputum of the infected patient. The presence of neutrophils and greater than ten gram-positive diplococci usually results in the diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae. For further conformation of this organism, it is streaked on blood agar. When on blood agar the organism should