Task1 Essay

783 Words Feb 1st, 2015 4 Pages
Biochemistry Competence 208.5.1: DNA,RNA
Nicole Seegmiller-Mott
Western Governors University
This a brief written report on the role of DNA, RNA and transmission on information within a cell to create amino acids.

Biochemistry Competence 208.5.1: DNA,RNA
DNA replication is an intricate process that requires many different proteins. Each protein preforms a very specific function in the creation of a new DNA strand. First helicase works by unwinding or dividing the original double helix into single stands. The point where the DNA is separated by the helicase is known as the replication fork. Single strand binding proteins attach to the newly made single strand of DNA to prevent re-annealing. Next is the addition of an RNA
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First adenosine monophosphate (AMP), a covalent enzyme, must be formed and linked to a lysine enzyme. Next AMP will transfer to the 5' phosphate end of the missing section between the Okazaki fragments. Last –OH will help remove the AMP sealing the phosphate backbone together producing a continuous DNA strand ("DNA Ligase," n.d.). A visual representation of ligase joining two Okazaki fragments can be viewed in Figure 2.
Transcription is the formation of an RNA strand from a DNA template within the nucleus of a cell. There are four nucleotides of DNA. These are adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. These nucleotides are transcribed to form messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) consisting of nucleotides made of adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil. This transcription from DNA to mRNA happens by an RNA polymerase II. This newly created mRNA is read in the 5' to 3' direction in sets of 3. These sets are called codons. Each mRNA also has a cap and end. On the 5 prime side is a methylated guanine triphosphate and on the 3 prime is a poly A tail. Messenger RNA then moves to the cells cytoplasm and through the cells ribosomes for translation. Messenger RNA is matched to molecules of transfer RNA (tRNA) in the ribosomes to create amino acids. These amino acids subsequently form an amino acid chain. (Osuri, 2003) A visual representation of this can been viewed in figure 3.
As was just learned, RNA polymerase II is what transcribes DNA.

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