Taxonomy Essay

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Taxonomy
A species is a genetically distinct group of organisms, which can
interbreed and produce fertile, viable offsprings. External similarity
is the common basis for identifying individuals as being members of
the same species. Yet a bulldog, a terrier, and a golden retriever are
very different in appearance, but they are all dogs because they can
interbreed. People can also interbreed with one another, and so can
cats, but people cannot interbreed with dogs or cats, nor can these
with each other. This shows that individuals of a species are able to
interbreed with one another but not with members of other species.
Even if they could interbreed
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The classification levels become more specific
towards the bottom of the hierarchy. Many organisms belong to the same
kingdom. Fewer belong to the same phylum, and even fewer belong to the
same class and so on with species being the most specific
classification. The categories from most general to most specific are
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Each level
groups together organisms that share more characteristics with each
other.

To ensure accurate communication of information, biologists have
assigned a two-word scientific name to each organism. This is called
Binomial Nomenclature. Nomenclature is a term that refers to a system
for naming organisms. In biology the system is "binomial", meaning
that two names are used to specifically identify every organism -
genus and species. The binomial system uses a two word Latin name. For
example, the binomial name for humans is Homo sapiens. Homo, referring
to the genus and sapiens referring to the species. Another example is
the binomial name for the red maple tree, which is Acer rubrum. Acer
is the Latin name for maple, referring to the genus, and rubrum is the
Latin name for red referring to the species. The genus name refers to
the relatively small group of organisms to which a particular type of
organism belongs. The species name is usually a Latin description of
some important…