(cdc.gov) Individuals with latent TB will have no symptoms of active disease and are not contagious. However, these same individuals can develop tuberculosis if they become immunocompromised, live in poverty, have poor nutrition or have other comorbidities. (Maurer & Smith, 2013)
Tuberculosis is one of the leading infectious diseases around the world. Globally, infectious diseases like tuberculosis among others continue to be one of the leading causes of death in children, adolescents and of the leading causes in adults (WHO). The purpose of this article is to examine and discuss mostly the etiology of tuberculosis, as well as its cause and spread. To better understand the subject of tuberculosis as an infectious disease and the problem it poses throughout the world, the following questions would be answered: What are the factors important in the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases? How do sufferers and non-sufferers view tuberculosis? What is the impact of
The risk factors for contracting the disease vary according to age, health conditions, or location. The elderly people and infants are likely to get TB mainly because their immune systems are weak. As an individual grows old, the immune system weakens and this can increase chances of being
Coordinate with Logistics Readiness Division (LRD) & Subsistence Supply Management Office to ensure availability of appropriate subsistence for both garrison and field feeding operations to ensure adequate timely re-supply.
The social aspect looks at how TB affects the overall impact of health related quality of life. The global section looks at the barriers of governmental funds and treatment access in different developed versus developing countries. The environmental section explores the environmental conditions in where TB impacts socioeconomic factors, including income, education, housing, age, gender, and geographic distribution. The policy section explores the policy around the treatment of TB, providing distributions of policies (funding, allocative health policies and regulated health policies) and organized policymaking processes at the federal level that allow for the improvement of the health of the population.
TB is a complex, chronic disease which induces immune dysregulation of several arms of the immune system. In this study, we analyzed the specific concentration of IFN-γ, TNF-α , IL-1β, and IL-10 cytokines from smear negative PTB(SNPTB) and smear positive PTB (SPPTB) to determine the effect of mycobacterial load on the cytokine concentration utilizing a simple whole blood assay stimulation with a whole sonicate MTB. Different concentration of cytokines(IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 ) detected in present study were associated with bacillary load of MTB in sputum from PTB patients. Our results demonstrate that , individuals with smear-negative PTB was associated with increased concentration in Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and decreased TNF-α ,IL-1β , as well as decreased concentration of specific Th2 cytokine IL-10 as compared with individuals with smear positive. These results strongly suggest that the sputum positive group had the lowest immune response (lowest IFN-γ levels, and highest IL-10 level) and indicate that the cytokine concentration is progressively impaired with increased mycobacterial load. In addition, PTB patients presented with a higher expression of IL-10 and TNF-α in contrast to the lower expression of IFN-γ and IL-1β as compared with healthy control. IFN-γ secreted in low concentration in two clinical PTB patient groups(SNPTB,SPPTB) as compared with health control(HC), but these levels insignificant between two
Tuberculosis is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that most commonly affects the lungs. The etiologic agent can be expelled from one infected person via a sneeze or a cough, and enter the air and then the body of another person, leading to another infected person (“Tuberculosis, 2012). According to “What is TB?” (n.d.), someone who has diagnosed tuberculosis but is not receiving any form of treatment can pass the disease to up to 15 people in on year. Treatment of TB is necessary, so if symptoms are ignored, an infected person could die. Prevalence of this disease is not as common in the United States as it is in other countries. In 2014, there were approximately 9,421 reported cases; trends show that TB prevalence continues to decreases each year. Of
TB infection occurs through inhalation of Mtb containing airborne droplets dispersed from a TB infected person by coughing or sneezing. When the inhaled droplets reach the alveolar region of the lungs, the Mtb is quickly phagocytized by alveolar macrophages and other phagocytic cells, including neutrophils, monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells . The phagocytic cells most often kill the entered Mtb by phagosome-lysosome fusion. However, Mtb can inhibit the phagosome-lysosome fusion by blocking V-ATPase expression and increasing the accumulation of tryptophan-aspartate-containing coat protein around the phagosome membrane [5-7]. In addition, by generation of catalases, peroxidases and superoxide dismutases, Mtbs become resistant to macrophage attack, which allows them to persist in the macrophages.
Without taking proper and correct treatment, mortality rate cause by tuberculosis in Canada will be two-thirds of the population.
There has been renewed interest of late in reaching the 3 million individuals with active TB infection each year who currently fall between the cracks in TB control efforts. There were programmes such as the Stop TB Partnership’s TB REACH initiative have been at the forefront of strategies to identify hard-to-reach populations through the scale-up of ACF for TB. While a body of literature has emerged examining the effectiveness of various ACF approaches, the acceptability of ACF has, to date, received scant attention. Using participation rates as a proxy for acceptability, support for ACF is generally presumed to be high; however, participation rates alone are of limited value in understanding the optimal applications of ACF and informing policy change. Our study is one of the first to systematically explore the perspectives of patients and health providers engaged in community-based ACF. Findings suggest a high level of acceptability for home-based ACF across key stakeholders, including TB patients, village health volunteers, community TB workers, and public sector providers.
In 2014, 72% of TB cases were found among people born outside the UK. India, Pakistan and Somalia were the most frequent countries of birth for non-UK born cases, though rates among this group have decreased significantly over the last two years. This decrease in rates is also true in the non-UK born population as a whole. TB remains an illness that is associated with health inequality. People in deprived communities have rates of TB seven times higher than people in the least deprived areas. 34% of cases were found among people not in education or
a patient with a new case of TB can be treated at home. Others will enter the
There are two categories in which patients may fall into when developing active tuberculosis: those who have previously developed TB disease and a weakened immune system. Categories in which a person may have previously developed TB are those who had close contact with an infected patient; a foreign-born patient who lived in an area where TB was prevalent; and groups that are susceptible to exposure to TB are the homeless, prison inmates, drug users, and HIV-infected individuals. The following are risk factors that are associated with a weakened immune system: HIV infection, substance abuse, immunosuppressive therapy, children under the age of 5, low body weight, and diabetes mellitus (CDC, 2012). Developing TB disease is dependent upon the
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic bacterial infection that affects millions of people globally. It is a contagious disease that is spread through the air, and it usually affects the lungs. It is transmitted from person to person through droplets from the respiratory tract of those who are already infected with the disease. Some who are infected with the bacteria that causes TB often exhibit no symptoms, because their immune systems stop the bacteria from growing and multiplying. Those with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to developing the full blown disease which can cause symptoms that include coughing, spitting blood, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, and fever. Tuberculosis can be treated with a six to nine month course of a combination of antibiotics. If left untreated, TB will spread and can be fatal.
TB is caused by a bacterial infection known as mycobacterium tuberculosis. If a patient is sick with TB is considered a disease. The infection is prevalent in the HIV population because approximately 13 million Americans are effected by the TB bacteria. It typically involves the lungs but can also affect the brain and other organ systems. The TB germ is airborne and can live in the air for several hours. Once an affected person coughs or sneezes another person breathes in the germ and becomes infected. A patient with TB and HIV/AIDS will have to take an antibiotics long term to battle the infection. They will have to go through two phases of medication. The initial phase consists of utilizing drugs such as isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifamycin, and ethambutol for the first couple of months. Then the patient will enter into the continuation phase, during this phase the patient will take the isoniazid and rifamycin for approximately four months. HIV patient’s that are taking antiretroviral for the HIV will have to take the antibiotics longer. A person taking treatment for TB has to be careful because the antibiotic can cause liver damage. According to the CDC, roughly 6% of all TB cases are from patients with HIV or AIDS. In 1992 the United States had a dramatic increase in TB cases but has decreased ever since. Recently a group of researchers at John Hopkins