Tbi Traumatic Brain Injury

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TBI termed as Traumatic Brain Injury is an intracranial injury that often occurs when an external force is applied to the brain. TBI survivors encounter changes in cognition, sensorimotor function and personality. Incidents caused by rapid change in acceleration, blast waves, crush or penetration by a projectile. This could result in temporary or permanent impairment of cognitive, physical and psychological functions. In TBI, the primary injury is an external force, that induces mechanical tissue deformation, resulting in necrotic cell death, shearing and tearing of the vessels, neurons, glial and initiation of secondary injury. A primary injury would basically result in the immediate rupture of the brain tissue. A secondary injury involves…show more content…
In FPI models, a fluid pressure pulse is generated by a pendulum striking the piston of a reservoir of fluid through a craniotomy. This is done either around the midline between bregma and lambda or laterally over the parietal bone between bregma and lambda. FPI models replicate TBI without a skull fracture. FPI models can be classified into two models parasagittal models (3.5 mm lateral to midline). The lateral FPI (LFPI) model is widely used in animal models. a LPFI model creates a combination of focal cortical contusion and diffuse sub cortical neuronal injury. LFPI produces neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits (such as difficulties with movement and memory) that are commonly seen in patients with TBI [50,51]. The Controlled cortical impact injury model (CCI) comprises of a electromagnetic device to drive an impactor onto the target area, which is usually, dura. This replicates the cortical tissue loss, acute subdural haematoma, axonal injury, concussion, blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and even coma [24,25,53,56,57]. An advantage of this model over other models includes, ease in defining mechanical factors such as time, velocity, and depth of impact. The next technique is Penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) which is a result of high energy transmission of projectiles that leads to
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