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The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite is indisputably one of the most popular networking protocol suites ever developed. TCP/IP is an industry standard designed for large networks consisting of network segments connected by routers, and is the protocol used on the Internet (Hillpot & Ivy, 2005). TCP/IP’s roots can be traced back to research conducted by the United States Department of Defense (DOD) Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) as early as 1960. In the best bureaucratic tradition, DARPAs (or ARPA, as it was called at the time) involvement in the creation of the internet began with a memo dated April 23, 1969 that was authored by Joseph Licklider (Waldrop, 2012). Between1970 to 1996 the…show more content…
This layer compares to the Network layer of the OSI model. • TRANSPORT LAYER provides the Application layer with session and datagram communication services. TCP and UDP are the core protocols at this layer. TCP provides a one-to-one, connection-oriented, reliable communications service that establishes connections, sequences, and acknowledges packets sent, and recovers packets lost during transmission. In contrast, UDP provides one-to-one or one-to-many, connectionless, unreliable communication service which is used when the amount of data transferred is small (Davis, 2007). For example, when the data would fit into a single packet or when the applications or upper-layer protocols provide reliable delivery. This layer is equivalent to the OSI Transport layer. • APPLICATION LAYER is constantly evolving and contains a vast amount of protocols. This layer allows access, defines protocols for applications to utilize the services of the other layers, and delineates the exchange of data. Recognizable protocols that help users exchange information are, HTTP, which transfers files that make up the pages on the World Wide Web, FTP that transfers individual files for interactive user sessions, and SMTP, which transfers mail messages and attachments. Protocols that aid in the management of TCP/IP networks are DNS that resolves a host name, such as, to an IP address, RIP routers use to exchange
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