Tda 2.2 Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People. -3.1 Identify the Characteristics of Different Types of Child Abuse.

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-3.1 Identify the characteristics of different types of child abuse.
There are four categories of abuse: - Physical, Neglect, Emotional and sexual.
Physical Abuse
Physical abuse is the intentional deliberate use of physical force or violence to hurt or injure a child. It may include slapping, punching, pulling hair, hitting, beating with objects, burning with cigarettes/cooker rings, scalding, shaking, biting, squeezing, cutting, throwing, poisoning, attempting to suffocate/drown or giving inappropriate drugs/alcohol.
Some of the signs and symptoms of physical abuse are bruises in places that would not be associated with a child falling over accidentally, these may happen frequently. They maybe finger marks from being grabbed, burns
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They may be frequently unwell and have poor general health, they may have nappy rash, cradle cap or constantly have nits. They may be dirty and not washed; they may have dirty or inappropriate clothes for the time of year. They may be tired/ lethargic as they are not getting enough sleep and or not eating correctly.
Other signs may be that the child is often late for school or nursery and have poor attendance. The child may be withdrawn and have low self-esteem and confidence. They may have an inability to form friendships and feel sad. They may be destructive and aggressive and have neurotic behaviour where they sit and rock or twist their hair as they have nothing to stimulate them. They may have poor language skills as they are not encouraged to have conversations with their parents, they may be delayed in development in other ways as they are not encouraged to push themselves physically. They may have limited experiences as they are never have any interaction with their parents, they are never taken to the park or taken on days out.

Emotional Harm
Emotional harm is when a child is not praised a lot by their parents and are constantly put down and made to feel worthless and have low self-esteem and self-confidence. The child may have little or inconsistent love or warmth from their parents. The parents may reject the
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