Teaching And Learning Processes Within The Classroom

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The classroom is a transactional space where teaching and learning processes interact in numerous ways. The classroom is therefore a locus of regular and sustained interactions between students and teachers (Talbert & McLaughlin, 1999 cited in Bascia, 2014). As far as classroom processes go, the immediate impact of contextual factors are the influences of an authoritarian government seeking to control the educational agenda; which results in the reduction in resources - human and material; and an increasing reduction in the teachers ' autonomy. These contextual influences are influenced to a varying degree by what Bronfrenbrenner (1979) calls microcosms consisting of micro, meso and macro. The micro level, contains the influences to the immediate environment of the classroom, hence it pertains to students and teachers. The meso level includes the organisation, and encompasses the inter-relationship of two or more settings, such as the school, family. The macro level envelopes the micro and meso and includes wider influencing factors which indirectly impact the classroom environment, such as the community, nation, and global. Contextual influences led to a plethora of teaching and learning models, specifically Procter (1984), Cruickshank (1985) and Gage & Berliner (1992). In 1995, Huitt introduced a model that included the category of context which included all the variables outside of the classroom that have an impact on the teacher-learner transaction, where the role and
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