Teaching English As An International Language

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The rapid spread of English has inspired many scholars to look into the probability of shifting from traditional ENL (English as a native language) pedagogy in ELT to EIL (English as an International Language (Jenkins 2009; Kirkpatrik 2007; Sharifian, 2009, Matsuda 2012, McKay, 2012). Taken together, the goal of teaching English today from an EIL perspective is to prepare the learners to use English to become part of the globalized world, which is linguistically and culturally various, and thus both teachers and EIL courses should prepare learners for such diversity and to represent English as a pluralistic and dynamic component rather than a monolithic and static one. Traditionally, curriculum developers have presumed that American or British English should be the target language in ESL/EFL curriculum. The emergence of other possible models happened when Kachru (1985, 1986) distinguished among three circles of English. According to Kachru (1986), these circles set up “three distinct types of speech fellowships of English, phases of the spread of the language, and particular characteristics of the uses of the language and of its acquisition and linguistic innovations” (p.122). As McKay (2012, p.10) puts it “traditionally L2 pedagogy and research have been dominated by the assumption that the goal of bilingual users of English is to achieve native-like competence in English. However, for those individuals who use English essentially as a language of wider communication
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