This antenna is designed on FR-4 substrate. It has dielectric constant 4.4 and thickness 1.6 mm. copper material is used for ground plane and patch. We provided microstrip line feeding to this antenna.
The Radio was introduced to society because of the telegraph and the telephone. These inventions don’t do the same things but their similar branch of technology. “Radio technology began as “wireless telegraphy”. “It all started with the discovery of radio waves, electromagnetic waves that have the capacity to transmit music, speech, pictures and other data invisibly through air.” [Bellis] Majority of technology uses electromagnetic waves to send data information or TV broadcasts. During the 1860’s, Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell predicted the existence of radio waves; and in 1886, German physicist, Heinrich Rudolph Hertz showed how fast the variation of electric current could be placed into space in the form of
The implementation of electromagnetic tracking (EM) to verify nasogastric tube placement is a new concept that can provide better and safer patient care. Many people die of improper placement of nasogastric tube each year. The misplacement of these tubes, if not verified correctly, can cause severe injury to the patient or even death. Fundamentals of Nursing, believe that X-ray is the best way to verify placement (Potter, Perry, Stockert, & Hall, 2013). In the Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics and the British Journal of Nursing they both find that Electromagnetic tracking is the safest way. It is important to check for verification because this type of harm is preventable. New evidence-based practice states that the use of electromagnetic tracking is safer versus the use of pH, X-ray, and CT scanning (Taylor S. et al., 2014). Another benefit to using this method is that
So the transmitter can increase the output of the antennas in the direction of computers farther away or where there are more computers to allow for better coverage or throughput and decrease the output of the antennas in directions where there are obstacles.
Wireless connections have harmful effects on the health of people and especially on blood, the heart, and the autonomic nervous system when the radiation is continuous and long-term . Therefore, it is recommended to reduce electrosmog exposure and prevent wireless networks for communication, monitor, control and powering of the LVADs.
The important parameters that affect the detection and tracking can be classified in to 3 broad categories; endovascular devices, projection geometry and motion. At first, the detection of various shapes and radio-opaque devices is a challenge. Secondly, the detection is challenged by image magnification and image geometry by various projections (Cranio-caudal tilt). Thirdly, and importantly real-time tracking challenged by the patient motion and the deformation of the vessel.
Microstrip antennas are low profile, conformable to planar and non planar surfaces, simple and inexpensive to manufacture using modem printed-circuit technology, mechanically robust and compatible with MMIC designs. When the particular patch shape and mode are selected they are very versatile in terms of resonant frequency, polarization, pattern and impedance. In addition by adding loads between the patch and the ground plane, such as pins and varactor diodes. adaptive elements with variable resonant frequency, impedance, polarization and pattern can be designed. Since it is of planar structure, it has all the advantages of printed circuit technology. The major operational disadvantages of microstrip antennas
An endoscope can be integrated with surgical instruments; it can send pulses or heat and electricity and obliterate small tumors or gall stones. Endoscopes have their own names according to their application, such as:
The planar antenna configurations such as microstrip and patch antennas have been found suitable for such systems. These antenna configurations are of low profile, lightweight, simple and inexpensive to fabricate. The main design goal of antenna design for modern communication systems is to achieve the better performance for desired frequency bands. But the main disadvantage of using microstrip antenna for recent day’s wireless communication is to achieve multi frequency operation with single antenna, maintaining the performance the antenna for all desired frequency.
In present scenario, Microstrip patch antennas [3-5] are drawing much attention in broad range of wireless communication systems due to their light weight, simple structure, easy reproduction, conformability, low manufacturing cost, and very versatile in terms of resonant frequency, polarization, pattern and impedance at the particular patch shape and model. In its most fundamental form, a microstrip patch antenna consists of a radiating patch on one side of a dielectric substrate which has a ground plane on the other side as shown in figure 1.1. The patch is generally made of conducting material such as copper and gold and can take any possible shape. The radiating patch and the feed lines are usually photo etched on the dielectric substrate.
Recent studies has shown that, using mobile phones have effect on medical devices. Many organizations around the world are very concern about the EMI and majority of them are working hard to ensure that EMC on medical devices is improved. But to improve the level of EMC is a length process and require tough regulation, therefore many health organization has been promoting EMC through “continuing development of regulations, standards, guidelines and publications that are intended to help prevent EM1 and promote EMC and that can be applied to the safe use of RF sources and medical devices in hospitals” . The most important aspect os solving EMI is to identifying the mode of electromagnetic inference and the following are example of EMI in the hospitals wireless telephone services, digital television (DTV), wireless local area networks (LAN), “Bluetooth” equipment, and security systems. All the above mention have EMI on equipment being use in the hospitals for diagnostics, therapeutic and non-medical devices which are not directly medical devices but are important for the functionality of the hospital.
In 2010, Li Zhiyong, Zhang Qian, Wang Huilong and Liu Yunlin from the Laboratory of the Electromagnetic and Microwave, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China presented Ultra-wide band microstrip-fed antenna with L shape ground application. The current path of the ground plane would enlarged by using the L shaped ground which are improved the impedance bandwidth performance. The notch would inserted on the ground plane under the microstrip line to enhance the impedance matching of the antenna. The proposed antenna are designed to the operate over a 3.3GHz to 12GHz for the S11 less than the -10dB and they provides a good omnidirectional radiation patterns. The Simulated results showed that the proposed antenna can be a good candidate for the hand held Ultra-wide band applications owing to its attractive
Antennas – antennas serve as interfaces between transmitted/received signals and transmitters/receivers. Depending on the type, shape, and size of the transmitter antenna, the transmitted signal will have directionality and polarization properties. A receiver antenna is designed to match this directionality and polarization so that the transmitted signal can be received. Earth-facing antennas are usually designed to provide a coverage region with a particular contour shape. Typically, horn antennas and parabolic reflector antennas are used for this purpose. In some satellites, multiple transmit antennas (lens antennas and antenna arrays) are used to generate multiple “spot beams” for higher signal directionality and gain. The coverage region and the spot beams may be fixed or dynamically formed depending on the application. Some advanced experimental