Techniques Used For Air Navigation Essay

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The techniques used for air navigation will depend on whether the aircraft is in flight under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) or Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). In the latter case, the pilot will navigate exclusively using radio navigation instruments and aids such as beacons, or as directed under radar control by air traffic control. In the case of VFR, a pilot navigates heavily using "dead calculations" combined with visual (pilot) observations, referring to appropriate maps. This can be supplemented using radio navigation aids.
Given the flight plan and the position of the aircraft, the flight management system calculates the route to be taken. The driver can take this course manually, or the autopilot can be configured to take the course.

The flight management system mode is normally called LNAV or lateral navigation for the lateral flight plan and VNAV or vertical navigation for the vertical flight plan. VNAV provides targets and speeds of height and altitude, and LNAV provides a balanced control of automatic piloting.

FUELS AND ENGINES
Automotive
The cars of the street are powered by gasoline, or as some may know it petroleum. Some heavier vehicles run on diesel and its domestic variants. The following are some of the properties of these dominating fuels.

1) Petrol/Gasoline: It is mainly a clear fuel that is sourced from crude petroleum which is mainly used as fuel in internal combustion engines. It primarily consists of organic compounds obtained by fractional

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