Complete citation. Author(s), Date of publication, Title, Journal, Volume #, pages (1pt)
Lenarz, M. S., Nelson, M. E., Schrage, M. W., & Edwards, A. J. (2009). Temperature Mediated Moose Survival in Northeastern Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Management, 73(4), 503-510.
Key question(s) being addressed (1pt)
“Our primary objective was to estimate annual and seasonal survival rates in adult moose in northeastern Minnesota and determine whether heat stress explained variation in these survival rates” (Lenarz et al 2009, p. 504).
Hypothesis (If relevant—did the authors explicitly state hypotheses, were specific hypotheses being tested? Note that review articles usually don’t include hypotheses.) (1pt)
“We…show more content… A total of 116 subjects monitored by weekly airplane transects from February 2002 to March 2008 generated data for mortality due to predators, disease, or natural causes. Independent temperature data of daily maximum and minimums corroborated closely with NOAA temperature data throughout November 2002 to February 2008. Categorizing temperature data into four seasonal groups, a metric heat stress index (HSI) reflected variance in temperature, which correlates alongside increased energy expenditure for moose to maintain thermal equilibrium. Calculation of survival using non-parametric estimation partitioned 6 annual and 24 seasonal periods for regression analysis between temperature and survival. Dependent variables for seasonal survival and independent variables for HSI calibrated a linear model to predict magnitude of temperature variance on survival.
Results (what were the basic results of the study, how did the authors draw conclusions, how did they display their data, are their conclusions justified) (1pt)
“Of the 116 radio collared moose, 85 (73%) died by 1 March 2008” (Lenarz et al 2009, p. 506). Sources of mortality included capture stress, hunting, poaching, vehicle collision, predation, disease, and cases of unknown mortality. Displayed in figure 2, non-anthropogenic mortality is highest between April and May. As displayed in Table 2, “Annual survival rates