Tendencies of Developing an Addiction

1615 WordsJan 26, 20187 Pages
Tendencies of developing an addiction – from reward to motivation Despite the fact that these studies give an overview of how a pleasurable effect can lead to addiction, they do not fully answer the question as to why some people are more prone to this disorder than others. To clarify this uncertainty, factors from all levels of analysis need to be examined. The studies above are fairly reductionist as they only focus on the effect of neurotransmission of dopamine in addictive behaviour and do not consider other aspects that could contribute to addiction. The diathesis-stress model provides a reasonable explanation of addiction as a result of the interaction of biological and environmental factors. Genetics are indeed demonstrated to be a significant factor in addiction. Environmental factors include social identity, social categorization and social learning. Goffman (1986) argues that stigmatized individuals often respond to society's expectations and norms by adjusting the social identity of the group they belong to or of the group they are categorized in: that of an addict. The social learning theory which assumes that 'humans learn behaviour through the environment, but most specifically through observational learning" has also been shown to be involved in addiction. (Niaura, 2000). Akers and Lee (1996) supported the fact that addictive substance abuse can be a consequence of social learning in their longitudinal study with aim to test the social learning model of
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