The possible side effects of hepatitis B, pertussis, pneumococcal disease and rotavirus may be alarming, but they highly outweigh the effects of the actual disease. “About one of every 600,000 doses of hepatitis B vaccine is complicated by a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis” (The Benefits of Vaccination Outweigh the Risks). No one has ever died from the hepatitis vaccination, but the symptoms of anaphylaxis- hives, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea- can be quite frightening (Mayo Clinic). During the polio epidemic of 1952, “of the 58,000 cases reported that year 3,145 died and 21,269 were left with mild to disabling paralysis” (History). After Jonas Salk developed the first polio vaccination in 1955, the number of polio victims dropped to nine hundred and ten. In addition to this claim, vaccines save the lives of many who could have died from vaccine-preventable
World War Two, a harsh period of time in the 1930s-1940s, filled with controversial arguments, political battles, fights to the death, but most importantly, medical advancements. Did you know that without the research and discoveries made during World War Two, our medical programs would probably be lacking the information we have today? It’s very true, and in my opinion, the war strengthened our medical abilities, and it really put our world to the test. New medicine had been discovered, while old medicine had been improved; horrible medical experiments performed by the Nazis occurred during this time; but most importantly, World War Two has affected our medical programs that we have presently. These
Many infectious diseases that once quickly spread and easily killed have been controlled or eradicated due to vaccinations. The efficacy of vaccines in reducing morbidity and mortality, particularly in children, is undeniable. Per the World Health Organization, childhood vaccinations prevent approximately 2-3 million deaths per year worldwide (WHO, 2016). In the United States, the value of immunizations is clearly displayed by comparing pre-vaccine era morbidity/mortality rates to post-vaccine era in regards to vaccine-preventable diseases. For example, prior to the diphtheria vaccine in the 1920’s, 206,000 people annually contracted the disease resulting in 15,520 deaths (History of Vaccines, 2009). However, between 2004 and 2014, only
Despite significant progress in the fight against preventable disease, millions still die needlessly each year. According to UNICEF, originally known as the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, a vaccine preventable disease is responsible for 2 million fatal infections worldwide each year. About 75% of these deaths occur in children under five years of age. (N) In more vivid terms, UNICEF notes that vaccine-preventable diseases kill a child every 20 seconds. (D) Due to high rates of childhood vaccination, the United States has experienced a dramatic reduction in such deaths. A comparison of the years 1950 and 2010 clearly illustrates the benefits of vaccinations. During this 60-year period, deaths from diphtheria reduced from 410 to 0, tetanus from 336 to 3, pertussis from 1,118 to 26, and polio from 1,904 to 0. Measles deaths dropped from 468 in 1950 to 0 in 2008, the last year a United States death rate was recorded. It’s not surprising that vaccinations have been touted as one of the top ten health achievements of the 20th century by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Vaccines change over time as science makes advancements and diseases processes evolve and emerge. Around 400 BC, Hippocrates recognized the now preventable diseases, such as diphtheria and mumps (Immunization Act Coalition, 2015). The first effort to immunize dates back to the 1100’s when children were inoculated with scabs from individuals who recently had small pox, with a technique coined as variolation. Then in 1796, Edward Jenner successfully created the first small pox vaccine (Immunization Act Coalition, 2015).
Vaccinations have been repeatedly demonstrated to be one of the most effective interventions to prevent disease worldwide. It was voted by readers of the British Medical Journal in 2007 as one of the four most important developments in medicine of the past 150 years, alongside sanitation, antibiotics and anaesthesia. However, vaccination currently saves an estimated three million lives per year throughout the world and so topped the list in terms of lives saved, making it one of the most cost-effective health interventions available. Modern vaccines provide high levels of protection against an increasing number of diseases and the symptoms, disability and death that can occur from them.
Mandatory vaccination continues to be a contentious subject in the United States, even though extensive evidence proves inoculation prevents certain diseases. According to A. Plotkin & L. Plotkin (2011), the evolution of the first vaccine commenced in the 1700’s when a physician named Edwards Jenner discovered that cowpox protected individuals from one of the deadliest diseases termed smallpox. The precise virus Jenner used is unclear; however, it was espoused in the extermination of smallpox worldwide. The researchers further explained, the unearthing of the subsequent vaccine known as chicken cholera occurred approximately 80 years later by Louise Pasteur. Ever since, copious vaccines such as rabies, yellow fever, varicella, pneumococcal, mumps and recently HPV have been introduced.
Most healthcare professionals and leaders attribute vaccination as the single-most important reason for increasing the health of the human population during the past one hundred years. As a result, required immunizations are common in the U. S. and other developed countries. However, there is a segment of society who argue against vaccination due to worries that immunizing negatively impacts future health. More and more information is becoming available that presents allopathic vaccination in an ugly light. (Sharma, 2003) For the past century, vaccines for diptheria,
During any war, medical advancements are commonly made in response to the atrocities that take place during these bloody and gruesome times. World War II is no exception. During World War II, medical advances simply had to be made to keep soldiers alive. With all the victims of bullet wounds and diseases spreading around, treatments had to be invented or advanced. I chose this topic because science and medicine is very fascinating to me and I want to become a doctor when I grow up. During the war, penicillin, sulfanilamide, atabrine, plasma, and morphine were used in abundance and saved a countless number of lives.
Throughout history there were many gruesome and extensive wars that took place, like in the American Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1 and World War II. The medical procedures from the Revolutionary War to World War II have dramatically changed from what they knew then to what they knew of during World War II. For example, the Revolutionary war lacked so much knowledge about healing the wounded most died from infected wounds, in comparison to number of deaths in World War II little to none died from noncritical treated wounds. Another example, is the different anesthetics that were used throughout all these wars that helped treated different pains. Within these wars mentioned played major roles in the development of different medical techniques, procedures, and treatment.
This essay will attempt to investigate the employment of the 23 plus vaccinations used today and how they defend the preventions and spread of diseases. The paper will support the pros and the cons of vaccinations that are supported by research statistics as well as the different symptoms that have been reported for each available vaccine.
“In California has already sickened more than 5,270 infants and killed nine, in 2010, the highest record since 1955.” (Steven Reinberg, HealthDay 2010) CDC recommends that, “all adults 18-64 in contact with infants or working in health care receive a TDap within two years of their last tetanus vaccination, and that other adults in the same age range be offered the vaccine 10 years or more after their last tetanus shot.” (CDC, 2011)
Immunizations are essential components in the primary and preventive care setting to ensure a healthier population. Immunizations are aimed to prevent illnesses such as Tetanus, Diphtheria, Varicella, Hepatitis A, Influenza and Pneumonia to mention a few. Upon their discovery and implementation, vaccines have aid to decrease the incidence of infectious diseases, which were once the leading causes of death in the country and around the world. Despite their validated benefits; amongst the adult population, there are existing misconceptions related to immunization usefulness and effectiveness resulting in an unacceptably low adult vaccination rates and unmet vaccine recommendations. Consequently, leading to approximately 40,000-50,000 preventable death and an increased spread of communicable illnesses("Adult Immunization:
Since vaccines were invented 1924, vaccinations have prevented 103 million cases of polio, measles, rubella, mumps, hepatitis A, diphtheria, and pertussis (Welch, 2014, ¶10).
On April 19, 1982, a televised documentary titled Vaccine Roulette aired showing the world the severe side effects DTP was causing on children and scientists opinions against the vaccine. What Vaccine Roulette purposely forgot to mention to nations of concerned, watchful parents was that the DTP vaccine nearly extinct the pertussis virus and that they had taken the answers of scientists and cropped their answers to best fit their case. As a British epidemiologist previously stated, “Once again the media have succeeded in denting parents confidence in childhood immunization” (Conis 209). Shortly after this documentary aired, vaccine compensation programs were established to protect those who unfortunately had a severe reaction to a vaccine and new and improved vaccines were formulated, tested, and released for administration to the