The Advancement Of Medicine And Surgery

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Individuals played a pivotal role in the advancement of medicine and surgery. The mid-19th century saw a breakthrough with anaesthetics, but despite this surgery was still seen as a dangerous and painful procedure. Operations were carried out in unhygienic conditions and surgical equipment and lab coats were not sterilised between operations which led to fatal infections that killed many patients. Intrigued over the cause of infection, Lister began his work on antisepsis. After reading Pasteur’s research on the Germ Theory he concluded that airborne germs caused infections and decided to experiment with Carbolic acid, a disinfectant used to treat sewage. In 1865 he used carbolic acid for the first time on an 11 year old patient and was…show more content…
This statement is agreeable as without Pasteur, Lister would not have discovered Antisepsis and without Koch, aseptic surgery might not have been introduced. The research and contribution of all these intellectuals combined, resulted in the development of aseptic surgery which is still used today. Cambridge scientists, James Watson and Francis Crick helped with the development and advancement of the medical field. They held an interest in genetics and proposed the double helix model of DNA in 1953, revealing that it was DNA that contained the hereditary material to make cells. Development in DNA structure paved a way to recognize hereditary diseases that were unidentifiable before, such as Phenylketonuria in the 1960s, which was passed from parents and caused a mental disorder in children. The research also set up the basis of genetic screening of disabilities such as Down syndrome in a foetus, enabling doctors to help patients avoid circumstances that might trigger the illness. On the contrary, it can be said that without technology such as x-ray and microscopes, and funding from the government, Crick and Watson’s research would not have been possible. In addition to this, without Rosalind Franklin’s crystallographic evidence on the structure of DNA, Crick and Watson’s research might have been left incomplete. Nevertheless, the cracking of the genetic code by Crick and Watson led to a revolution in the identification and treatment of genetic diseases, and
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