The Ancient Egyptian Civilization

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The ancient Egyptian civilization is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. Over a period of three thousand years many kingdoms and dynasties came into power and many died away into oblivion. One thing that kept Egyptian’s works and memories alive were the scriptures they wrote. Today, from these scriptures written on the wall (or on papyrus) have helped Egyptologists to uncover the secrets and the lives of the ancient Egyptians. A major understanding we have from these scriptures and other uncovered paintings is ancient Egyptian’s perception of religion and science. For them religion was not different from science. They used religion to explain the various worldly and cosmological phenomena. All their cosmogonies came from explanations based on religion and Gods. Gods were used to explain the origins of Earth, creation and maintenance of cosmos, concept of time and the various earthly and universal phenomena like origin of mankind, sunrise, sunset, migrations of birds, the stars, and constellations. In this essay I will be using various examples from ancient Egyptian scriptures, paintings, and texts to illustrate the Egyptians' perception of the cosmos. There is no one coherent source from where we can learn Egyptians' concept of the universe. The Egyptians' explanations about the universe changed from city to city. The three major cities were Heliopolis, Memphis, and Hermopolis. During the fifth dynasty Heliopolis was pronounced as the capital of the Egyptian
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