The And Pathophysiology Of Diabetes

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Diabetes mellitus is becoming an increasingly prevalent chronic disease which affects not only the sufferer, but also affects their family, society and numerous healthcare disciplines. According to the International Diabetes Federation (2013), an astounding 382 million people worldwide are living with diabetes. There are several different sub-types of this disease which include: Type 1 (T1DM), Type 2 (T2DM) and Gestational diabetes mellitus. Within Australia, an enormous 85.3% of the population living with this disease are suffering from T2DM (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012). These statistics highlight the severity of T2DM as it is rapidly becoming the type of greater concern, especially since this “adult-onset” disease is becoming…show more content…
(Mazze, Strock, Simonsen, & Bergenstal, 2004, p. 81). Obesity is another condition which can result in metabolic syndromes which also play a role in the development of T2DM along with other diseases including coronary heart disease, all of which are major contributors to patient morbidity and mortality (Craft & Gordon, 2011, p. 1068).
As previously mentioned, T2DM is characterised by insulin deficiency and insulin resistance within peripheral tissues such as muscle, liver, and adipose tissues (Mazze, Strock, Simonson, & Bergenstal, 2004, p. 79). It was also noted that other conditions, namely obesity, were recognised to be positively correlated to the progression of T2DM.
Insulin deficiency refers to when a person fails to secrete adequate levels of insulin during digestion of meals (Naseem et al., 2012). Producing adequate levels of insulin is essential for being able to overcome the increase of glucose levels in the body while eating, this is achieved by sending signals to the liver to reduce its production of endogenous glucose. However, after prolonged exposure to this disease, this affects the ability of β-cells to respond to rises in glucose levels. (Mazze, Strock, Simonson, & Bergenstal, 2004, p. 80). Located in the pancreas, β-cells, or Beta cells, are responsible for the production and storage of insulin (Resnick, 2014).
Insulin resistance, however, occurs when insulin receptors within cells of the body
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