Type 1 diabetes is well known disease, some of us or someone we know are the victim of this chronic illness. There are controversial explanation such as, genetic susceptibility and in contrary, environmental factors that are viral infection, prenatal and neonatal influence, nitrate in drinking water, (Norris et al, 2003) early exposure to cow’s milk towards why the immune system destroy the insulin producing beta cell. In this essay, I will be discussing about the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes and how it affect the homeostasis of our normal functioning body. In subject to Carol, I will be explaining the signs and symptoms of the illness and also the possible effects to her developing foetus and herself.
Diabetes is a disease where the body is unable to produce or use insulin effectively. Insulin is needed for proper storage and use of carbohydrates. Without it, blood sugar levels can become too high or too low, resulting in a diabetic emergency. It affects about 7.8% of the population. The incidence of diabetes is known to increase with age. It’s the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the US, and is the primary cause of blindness and foot and leg amputation. It is known to cause neuropathy in up to 70% of diabetic patients. Individuals with diabetes are twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease. There are two types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a pandemic that affects millions of people. The growth rate of unrecognized pre-diabetes in America is expected to rise up to 52% by 2020 (Lorenzo, 2013). As the prevalence of diabetes increases, so will the complications and burden of the disease. One of the leading causes for cardiovascular disease, renal failure, nontraumatic lower limb amputations, stroke, and new cases of blindness is DM (Lorenzo, 2013).
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is the most common form of diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2012). T2D is so prevalent that it is estimated to be the fifth most common cause of death worldwide (Yates, Jarvis, Troughton, and JaneDavies, 2009, p. 1). T2D manifests when the body is unable to metabolize glucose properly, resulting in elevated blood sugar, debilitating fatigue, and other serious complications such as distal limb amputations, kidney failure, and blindness. The generally accepted causes of T2D include diet, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity.
According to Zimmet (2001), about 150 million people in the world have been suffering with diabetes and it would be 300 million by 2025. Another interesting study by AusDiab in 2000 revelead that 7.4% of the population aged 25 or over had diabetes (type 2 in 90%) Since 1981, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased to twice in and the total number of cases has increased threefold in Australia (Dunstain 2002).Although type 2 diabetes is effecting all races,it was identified highly in south Asians and also worlds one-third diabetic population is from indian continent ( Jean 2008). According to the report from Centre for Disease Control and Prevention in United states of America, nearly 25.8 million people have been affected by diabetes in 2010 with 90- 95% of them being type 2 DM (CDC 2011). However, type 2 diabetes mellitus which is characterized by the deficiency and resistance of the
Diabetes is a growing concern and health challenge for the American people (b). Diabetes is a condition in which the body cannot react to insulin appropriately or either cannot produce insulin efficiently (w). “Without a properly functioning insulin signaling system, blood glucose levels become elevated and other metabolic abnormalities occur, leading to the development of serious, disabling complications” (w). There are numerous forms of diabetes amongst the nation, however, there are three main forms of diabetes. Most people have heard of type one diabetes, type two diabetes, and gestational diabetes because they are common. Type two diabetes deals with a resistance to insulin, while
Insulin resistance is the first physiological change occurring in type two diabetes. In these type two diabetic patients, insulin is unable to move glucose into liver, kidney and muscle cells although insulin is able to attach properly to the cell surface receptors. In order to rectify this, most patients with type two diabetes start secreting normal to very high levels of insulin, which can initially overcome this resistance. After a while, the pancreas cannot keep up with this high insulin production and the cells become resistant to glucose intake. Persistent hyperglycemia or high blood glucose levels are not desirable since this causes damage to the beta cells of the pancreas that produces the insulin hormone. This damage to beta cells further hampers insulin synthesis and patients at this stage are categorized as full-blown diabetic. Such patients consistently show a hyperglycemia state even after hours of fasting ( Hinkle & Cheever,
There are two types of diabetes but this essay will focus more on Type 2 diabetes. Currently, the number of people with diabetes in Australia is going higher and went up to 1 million this year and doubled compared with the statistics in 1989. Approximately, 80 % of them are Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (Diabetes Australia, 2015). Furthermore, according to the survey there are about 1.8% of all Australians have an Intellectual Disability (328,000) and about 9% of them are suffering with diabetes. However, the true prevalence of diabetes in Australia’s population is still unidentified and unknown (Carolan, Holman, Ferrai,
Diabetes is a disease in which the body has an inability to produce any or enough insulin which will cause the blood sugar to spike or rise rapidly. There are two different types of diabetes as mentioned The first type is type one which is when the person’s pancreas cannot produce any insulin cells at all and when it comes to type two, their body produces some insulin but due to reasons like weight or food habits, their body can’t produce enough properly. All in all, people with both types of diabetes struggle to produce insulin. “ The stomach and small intestine convert the carbohydrates you eat into glucose, a kind of sugar. Glucose is the body’s main fuel. When released into the bloodstream as “blood sugar,” glucose circulates through the body and feeds the cells. Insulin enables cells to take that glucose in.”(Teen Health and Wellness). This is important because everyone in the world has this
Diabetes has become a widespread epidemic, primarily because of the increasing prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is an endocrine disease in which the body has either a shortage of insulin or a decrease ability to use insulin or both. Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose to enter the cells and be converted into energy. Diabetes can be characterized as a prevailing, incapacitating, and deadly disease. There are a number of risk factors that increase a person’s tendency toward developing type II diabetes. Modifiable risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits are just a few. The
Diabetes is a disease that can lead to heart attacks, stroke, kidney failure, nerve damage, or blindness (Turkoski, 2006). It not only costs many individuals their lives, but it also causes untold emotional and physical problems for people with diabetes and their families. In addition, the cost of care associated with diabetes and the associated complications exceeds $132 billion annually.
Diabetes Mellitus is a disorder characterized by an imbalance between insulin production, insulin need, and the bodies ability to use the available insulin. This imbalance can result from a total lack of insulin, from impaired release of insulin, inadequate or defective insulin receptors in body tissue, or from the production of insulin that is either inactive or destroyed before it can become effective.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a condition in the body that is related to a faulty metabolism. It means that the body’s metabolism is not functioning properly, which leads to adverse effects in the health. The food we ingest, gets broken down into blood sugar (glucose), which is what fuels our body in the form of energy. This converted glucose needs to enter our cells so that it can be used for energy and growth. And in order for the glucose to enter our cells, there needs to be insulin present, which the beta cells of the pancreas is responsible for producing. This hormone is responsible for maintaining glucose level in the blood. It allows the body cells to use glucose as a main
In Australia there are a variety of health issues that are concerning to the population, one in specific however that is notably on the rise is Diabetes. Research and recent studies suggest that this particular health issue is one of the biggest challenges confronting Australia’s health system today, with approximately 280 Australian’s developing diabetes everyday (one every five minutes) (Diabetes Australia, 2015). Diabetes is currently the fastest growing chronic condition in Australia proving to be increasing more rapidly than other chronic
Diabetes mellitus, or better known as Diabetes, is an endocrine system disorder. In this case, your body is unable to produce enough or any insulin at all. Insulin, produced by the pancreas, has a very important role. When sugar is ingested from food, it is turned into energy for the cells in our body. Without insulin, the transfer of sugar into the cells would be compromised. Insulin is also vital to keep the right balance of sugar in the bloodstream (Hess-Fischl, 2015). If too much insulin is produced, blood sugar levels are decreased resulting in hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia occurs when the blood sugar levels are increased (Sargis, n.d.).