The And Transformational Transactional Organizational Theories Of Leadership

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The theoretical foundations of this study are grounded in the contingency and transformational-transactional organizational theories of leadership. The strategic literature highlights leadership style as an especially important influence on organizational innovation (Garcia-Morales, Jimenez-Barrionuevo, & Gutierrez-Gutierrez, 2012).
Contingency Theory
Contingency theories are based upon the current leadership situation and are subject to change depending on the goal to be achieved (Waters, 2013). In contingency theory, the effectiveness of the leadership style depends upon the task, the leader’s personality, and the composition of the group being led (McWorthy & Henningsen, 2014). Fiedler’s Contingency Theory emphasized the leader’s
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In contrast, the Hickson Strategic Contingency Theory de-emphasized personality as a determinant and primarily focused on problem-solving abilities in defining effective leadership skills (Helkio & Tenhiala, 2013). The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership identifies four types of leader behavior; supportive (relations oriented), directive (task oriented), achievement oriented, and participative leader behavior (Seyranian, 2012). In addition, the Path-Goal Theory also identifies follower characteristics and task characteristics. The Path-Goal Theory predicts supportive leadership behaviors may increase the followers’ interest in accomplishing the task and further encourage the followers’ expectations in meeting organizational goals (Seyranian, 2012). In situations of a vague or complicated task, directive leadership behaviors could increase a followers’ positive expectations in attaining the goal (Goswami, Li, Beehr, & Goffnett, 2014; Seyranian, 2012). According to Huhtala and Parzefall (2007), a supportive work environment, as demonstrated by the Path-Goal Theory of leadership, positively influences employee innovativeness. While Garcia-Morales et al., (2012) affirmed that a collaborative, supportive, and participatory leadership style is more likely to encourage innovation within the organization.
Transformational-Transactional Leadership Theories
Transformational leadership, as first proposed by Burns (1978),
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