The Anterior Cruciate Ligament ( Acl ) Essay

1525 WordsApr 25, 20157 Pages
Overview: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is crucial to knee stability as its function is directly related to the anatomical morphology.9 The ACL is one of the two ligaments that interconect the femure and tibia in the intercondylar sector of the knee.4 It consists of two bundles: antromedial (AMB) and postrolatral (PLB). Both bundles originate from the postero-medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle and run in an oblique manner to insert on the anterior region to the intercondylar tibial eminence.17 The ACL is comprised of multiple collagen fascicles, mainly type I collagen, surrounded by connective tissue and covered by the synovial membrane.17 The average width of the ACL is 11mm and the mean length of the AMB is 33mm, while it is 18mm for the PLB.14 The ACL is mainly supplied with blood by the middle geniculate artery branch from the anterior aspect of the popliteal artery.1 The inferior medial and lateral geniculate artery is considered a secondary blood supply, and is innervated by the posterior articular branches of the tibial nerve.9 The majority of neural structures are located in the subsynovial layer and close to the insertion.17 The ACL mainly contains mechanoreceptors and nociceptors. Mechanoreceptors, which include Ruffin, Pacini, and Golgi-like receptors, act as a proprioceptive while free nerve endings function as the nociceptors.5 Variations around the ACL morphology: There is considerable controversy around the morphology of the ACL in the
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