The Anthropology Of Gender And Its Correlation Between Anatomy And Social Identity

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1. INTRODUCTION The study of the archaeology of gender emerged during the 1980s and the 1990s and since then, archaeologists influenced by post-structuralism, feministic archaeology, and archaeology of the body have been questioning the biological determinism of gender (Gilchrist, 1999, pp.13–14; Sofaer, 2006, pp. 89-116). On the contrary, earlier archaeological approaches presumed the existence of a link between anatomy and social identity, and formed methodological and interpretive imperatives on issues such as the social composition of a group the division of labor, the cultural perception of the individuals and finally, their mortuary treatment (Joyce, 2008, pp. 39–40, p.93, pp.123–124). Based on this polarization towards the interpretation of gender and its correlation to sex, I will present in this essay the question of whether it is possible or not, to assign a specific gender and a specific sex on individuals based on past cemetery evidence. However, before proceeding in discussing gender and sex on mortuary contexts it is essential to establish the definitions and address the issues concerning the theoretical and the practical approach of the two pillars of this question, namely: the gender and the sex. 2. GENDER AND SEX IDENTIFICATION Gender is considered a socially constructed idea that is infused in individuals during their childhood and it encapsulates a social code of behaviour that will facilitate their later integration in a social group. Additionally, it

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