Psychologists realized that the first few years of a child 's life are vital to their personality and behavioral development. One of the most critical qualities of a child 's development is the child 's relationship with their caregiver. From determining a child 's early attachment patterns, it can help further the child 's behavior in later development, and the way the child will relate to others in her years to come. The acknowledgment of this simple fact has led many psychologists to create theories and findings to support this idea. Bowlby’s creation of the Attachment Theory sparked many famous psychologists to come up with ways to support his theory. Mary Ainsworth is known to be most famous for her “Strange Situation” procedure, which determined how attached a child is with their caregiver (usually the mother).
This essay will firstly explain the different stage that is associated with development of young people socially in the early years of their life, with examples of Schaffer and Emerson’s theory of stages of attachment. Next the essay will evaluate the theories of attachment between a child and their parents/guardians,
This essay will look at the development of attachment theory since the time of Bowlby and the many theories proposed to determine which best describes attachment. The Attachment theory highlights the importance of attachment especially between mothers and infants in regards to the infants personal
Attachment theory is a psychological model that provides an influential, biologically driven explanation of how the parent-child interaction emerges and how it influences human development over a life span. The term attachment refers to the complex set of related thought processes and behaviors towards a primary care giver. The attachment behaviors are biologically guided by our natural instinct for protection and safety. This evolved behavioral system organizes human motivation, emotions, cognition, and memory. The attachment relationship that an individual creates in infancy effects their growth, behavior in other relationships, risk taking, and mental health through their human development (George, 2014, p. 97). I chose to use attachment theory to understand Carla’s current situation because the theory has been powerful in understanding the range of relationships patterns that develop between mother and their infants and children. It has been shown that children who experience inadequate parenting are at a much higher risk for an insecure attachment style and experience more interpersonal difficulties in adulthood especially with relationships. Carla grew up in a very inconsistent environment her whole life. Using attachment theory I am analyzing how her childhood shaped who she is as a woman and the choices she made that ultimately brought her to where she is today.
Attachment theory was advanced in 1951 by British psychoanalyst and psychiatrist John Bowlby. According to this theory infants have an inborn need to be close to their main caretaker. If the attachment is deprived from an infant Bowlby argued that the infant could suffer from negative impacts on their development.
Summary As we have seen in Rose's counseling session, past relational patterns are elicited from exploration of the patients' past and early relationships. Key themes are: the degree of love and care (emotional warmth) they experienced in early life; the degree of neglect and abuse; and the types and qualities of core conflicts. In Rose's case, the key issue, as Dr. Berenson discovers over the course of the interview is the subtle manipulation of a mother by her child. She tests her and puts her through a lot of stress, to see how she responds; in this case losing sleep and stressing over the situation.
' (Haith, 2014b, p. 466) Although a secure attachment does not occur from birth, ‘babies show signs of attachment through smiling, eye contact and crying. ' (Brandon et al., 2015) This shows the child 's main caregiver needs to begin to bond with their child for them to form a secure attachment. Bowlby believed ‘caregivers who neglect their children, bring up avoidant children. ' (Larose, & Bernier, 2001, p. 96-120). ‘Ambivalent/resistant children show negative behaviours to gain attention from others. ' (Kobak et al., 1993, p. 231-245) These statements show children who have an insecure attachment with their caregiver have a risk in behaviour problems. They will also have a less chance of developing their social and emotional skills effectively.
The importance of a healthy attachment in early childhood development can lead to a better adult development and skills for daily life. A secure and healthy attachment to the caregiver in infancy to adolescence showcases the importance of building strong relationships and coping skills during periods of stress and anxiety. The research that has been found, goes into detail about the different types of attachments that infants and children can develop as well as what negative and positive aspects come along with the attachments.
The attachment theory is a theory by Bowlby that refers to the joint mutual relationship that babies experience and develop with their primary caregiver (Bowlby, 1982). This theory is not supported by research in various sceneries. However, even though the attachment theory began as an initiative, the clinical application to
EFT is an attachment based research theory, that suggest that couples have strong need to stay connected (bond) to each other. As such, bonding is very important in marital relationships and if the bond is disappearing, then stressful and negative cycle pattern begins to emerge. Thus, the goal of EFT is to support couples walk through a process of healing (overcoming the negative patterns, rebuilding the connection again, and fortify the bond) (Goldenberg, Stanton, & Goldenberg, 2017). From the assessment that has carried out by the therapist it is clear that Tam and Lisa do not have what it takes to manage or settle conflicts without it escalating into something else. As such, the bonding between them is disappearing and it’s becoming stressful and disturbing to them and their children. Because Jimmy and Emma even though do not see their parent fight or disagree in the open but they can sense the disconnection between their parent and feel the tension whenever both of them where at home. More so, because of the negative pattern that has emerge as a result of lack of secure attachment, there is no more interactions between the couple and each others needs are not met. From the case conceptualization, and to decide what treatment plan should target or focus on the therapist will use the step-by-step treatment manual provided by Johnson and Greenberg (1995) as cited in (Goldenberg et al., 2017) for the therapy process:
In the early days Bowlby was criticized by academic psychologists and also ostracized Bowlby explored a wide range of fields in order to formulate the attachment theory which includes psychoanalysis, control system theory, evolutionary biology, ethology and cognitive psychology. Bowlby became concerned about the disturbance of children in understaffed orphanages and nurseries as they were not provided with much emotional interaction, so the children showed an inability to form close and long lasting relationships with others which seemed to Bowlby that they were unable to love because they had missed their opportunity to form solid attachment to a mother figure in early life. In 1948, World Health Organization commissioned Bowlby to conduct the research evidence on such institutional deprivation. In 1951, Bowlby put forward his hypothesis in Maternal Care and Mental Health that
The Development of Attachment Theory and Its Strengths and Limitations English psychiatrist John Bowlby is a leading and influential figure within the history of social reform. His work has influenced social work policies and legislation relating to child psychiatry and psychology.
Outline and evaluate one theory of attachment (12 marks) Bowlby’s theory is an evolutionary theory because, in his view attachment is a behavioural system that has evolved because of its survival value and, ultimately, its reproductive value. According to Bowlby, children have an innate drive to become attached to a caregiver because attachment has long-term benefits. Both attachment and imprinting ensure that a young animal stays close to a caregiver who will feed and protect the young animal. Thus attachment and imprinting are adaptive behaviours. Infants who do not become attached are less likely to survive and reproduce. Attachment ‘genes’ are perpetuated, and infants are born with an innate drive to become attached.
John Bowlby, a British psychologist (1907 to 1990) coined the term attachment. He was a psychiatrist and his influences were Freud, Melanie Klein and Lorenz. Bowlby’s attachment theory suggests that children come into the world biologically pre- programmed to form attachments with others as this will help them survive.
Exploration of Attachment Theory Fully describe the theory including the main concepts and principles Attachment theory is a concept that explores the importance of attachment in respect to direct development. “It is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space” (Bowlby, 1969; McLeod, 2009).