Essay on The Applications of Artificial Intelligence

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The Applications of Artificial Intelligence

Introduction

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that studies the computational requirements for tasks such as perception, reasoning, and learning, and develops systems to perform those tasks. AI is a diverse field whose researchers address a wide range of problems, use a variety of methods, and pursue a spectrum of scientific goals. For example, some researchers study the requirements for expert performance at specialized tasks, while others model commonsense processes; some researchers explain behaviors in terms of low-level processes, using models inspired by the computation of the brain, while others explain them in terms of higher-level psychological
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Developing programs that can deal at a human level with rich everyday reasoning remains a fundamental research challenge.

The first half-century of AI has yielded a wide range of results. AI research has illuminated the nature of reasoning problems, and the fundamental requirements for intelligent systems. AI research in the area of cognitive science has developed models that have helped to understand human cognition. Applied AI research has provided high-impact applications systems that are in daily use throughout the world. This chapter provides a brief introduction to the history of AI, sketches some major research areas, and closes by illustrating the practical impact of AI technology.

The History of AI

The name ``artificial intelligence'' dates only to the 1950's, but its roots stretch back thousands of years, into the earliest studies of the nature of knowledge and reasoning. Intelligent artifacts appear in Greek mythology; the idea of developing ways to perform reasoning automatically, and efforts to build automata to perform tasks such as game-playing, date back hundreds of years. Psychologists have long studied human cognition, helping to build up knowledge about the nature of human intelligence. Philosophers have analyzed the nature of knowledge, have studied the mind-body problem of how mental states relate to physical processes, and have explored formal frameworks for deriving conclusions.

The
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