With the start of the 16th century, many changes have occurred. One of them being, a turning point in european history and religion, the Reformation. The Reformation was an upheaval where people began to question the authority and piety of the Roman Catholic Church and its traditions. Ignited by Martin Luther, and continued by John Calvin and other protestants this break in religion really shook the established power of the Highest Institution. By the year of 1540, Pope Paul III seen that some kind of change within must happen in order to not lose catholicism to protestantism. He decided to spark a counter-reformation, that reformed and bettered the doctrine and the grip the church had on the monarchies of the european society. The first aim the counter-reformation had
The art piece that I selected for my analysis is called The Triumph of Divine Love by Peter Paul Rubens. The artwork is an oil painting on canvas, circa 1625. This piece of art was commission by Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain and Portugal. The Triumph of Divine Love was one of eleven art pieces in a series portraying the Eucharist cycle, an important issue in the Catholic-Protestant strife. Its purpose was to aid in the Catholic Reformation and the artwork was to be displayed at the Convento de las Descalzas Reales in Madrid. (Ringling Museum n.d.)
The two works of art that I have chosen is the painting The Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli and the poem Stanze per la Giostra by Angelo Poliziano. The Birth of Venus was created between 1484 and 1486 by Sandro Botticelli. It was created in the early Renaissance period and is currently located in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy. Stanze per la Giostra was written between 1475 and 1478 by the Renaissance poet Angelo Poliziano. Its current location is the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, although it is currently not on display. The Birth of Venus and Stanze per la Giostra share many similarities as Stanze per la Giostra was Botticelli’s inspiration for creating The Birth of Venus. In The Birth of Venus, Botticelli has transformed Poliziano’s words into a beautiful work of art. These works of art share the theme of beauty. While Angelo Poliziano describes the beauty of the goddess Venus in his prose, Botticelli has captured her beauty with his delicate brush strokes. I will be comparing the theme of beauty between The Birth of Venus and Stanze per la Giostra as well as connecting it to contemporary standards of beauty.
The Reformation was a religious movement that divided the church between the Catholics and Protestants. The Counter-Reformation was a reaction movement that followed this originally crusade, and was lead by the Catholics as a response to the wide spread of Protestantism. The purpose of the Counter-Reformation was to spawn internal reforms. This movement was focused on the renewal of the church in the form of the use of images, focus on the church as the house of God, and the veneration of the Virgin Mary and Saints. The Counter-Reformation was responsible for the start of major change in the Catholic Church and with regard to the role of art; the importance of art was heightened and the movement sought out to restore Catholicism and make is more attractive, thus emerged the Baroque style.
The Baroque period of the 1600 and 1750s began in Europe and defined the art of the time (Stechow 111). Spain’s quest for the unity and assimilation to Spanish culture of its subjects in the Americas led to the systematic suppression and destruction of the indigenous cultures of the regions, such as the Aztecs and the Incans. Baroque art was only supposed to be another aspect of Spanish culture for the indigenous population to assimilate to (Gauvin 4, 33-34). However, the Baroque period created an atmosphere in the Americas that led to a blending of the Spanish and indigenous cultures. The subsequent art and architecture that was created was a hybrid formed from the cultures coinhabiting the area. This hybrid form has been characterized as “a hidden inscription of difference within the fictional sameness of official culture, as rebellious graffiti camouflaged in the forest of baroque symbols” (Salgado 317-318). It provided a place for the people of Latin America to subtly celebrate and preserve their heritage that Spain was threatening. To understand the significance of the cultural impact that the hybridization of Baroque art had on culture in the Spanish colonies of the New World, we must first define what hybridization of an art form means. Then we will investigate what constitutes baroque art and why it was so conducive to being hybridized. To further the understanding of the hybridization, we will examine the painting Our Lady of Guapulo and the architecture
The next work is from Peter Paul Rubens. This creation was probably made in mid-1630 during his stay in Madrid. The painting is named “Venus and Adonis”. We can find that Rubens was one of the most interested artists of endowing the art of painting with prestige. He is the symbol of the baroque scholar Velazquez always wanted to imitate. This is due to its wide humanistic and religious culture, the mastery of several languages, the skills for diplomacy and its natural intelligence. Rubens reaped important prizes and noble distinctions of the kings of Spain and England that allowed him to acquire the dominion of Steen. For this reason he always self-portraits as a perfect gentleman, dressed elegantly and with the distinctive elements of his
Europe went through an era fueled by the search of truth and grand ambitions. This was a time period was characterized by much advancement in the sciences, politics, philosophy, and the arts.
This paper gives a comparative visual analysis of two artworks from the same period; “David Slaying Goliath”, by Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1616 and “The Sense of Touch”, by Jusepe de Ribera, c. 1615-1616. Despite the fact that the artworks are from the same period, they are both unique in terms of details and the themes they represent. This visual analysis compares and contrasts the way in which the artists employed the different characteristics of the baroque movement to come up with their unique compositions.
The era known as the Baroque period includes the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries in Europe. The Baroque style was a style in which the art and artists of the time focused upon details and intricate designs. Their art often appeals to the mind by way of the heart. During this time the portraits began to portray modern life, and artists turned their backs on classical tradition. Much of the art shows great energy and feeling, and a dramatic use of light, scale, and balance (Preble 302). Buildings were more elaborate and ornately decorated. These works of art created history and altered the progress of Western Civilization. Architecture such as the palace of Versailles, and artists like
Being a Renaissance painter all of his works are dedicated to maximum photorealism. His work is based on Greek and Roman statues but infused his own vision into them “When all was finished, it cannot be denied that this work has carried off the palm from all other statues, modern or ancient, Greek or Latin; no other artwork is equal to it in any respect, with such just proportion, beauty and excellence did Michelangelo finish it”-Giorgio Vasari.
Rubens continued learning of the different mythologies throughout his travels in Spain and Italy. He spent eight years in Italy as a court painter for the Gonzaga. Under the Gonzaga, Rubens was able to explore and see the greatest painters of Venice, including Titian, Veronese, and Tintoretto. In 1601 he visited Rome, there he had his first direct experience with the classical art. He returned later in 1605 and avidly studied ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. He admired and copied images of the ancient gods and heroes. Rubens’ knowledge of classical writings was an important element in the creation of his symbolic paintings. This knowledge of the history and mythologies was a strong influence in his life. In several of his letters in Ruth
It is around 6 feet tall and 12 feet long which makes some of the more prominent figures around 5 feet tall. The mood created and the size are two very Baroque aspects that Rubens includes in order to make the viewer feel connected to the work of art more. Additionally, each figure tells their own story, but each of their individual stories adds to the overall theme. First, there is a woman figure on the far left who is a personified version of Europe. The woman is in despair, flailing her arms up, and has tears in her eyes. This represents the mood of all the European citizens throughout the Thirty Years War, and if a viewer looks at her they would feel connected on an emotional level. Next, there is Venus who is desperately trying to hold back her lover Mars from inevitably going to war. Venus is portrayed as a beautiful, nearly nude figure who is highlighted with lots of light. Rubens includes lots of diagonals to show movement in the image, and to show how the story being told is not over- another very Baroque characteristic. Another crucial figure is Mars, the God of War. Mars is headed off to war, being pulled by Fury
During the 17th century, especially after their break from Spain, The United Provinces of the Netherlands became the most prosperous nation in Europe by leading the world in trade, science, and art. Through the huge and one of the first art markets, art became a common household possession and allowed artists to freely express themselves, which is one of the evidential factors in three of the most universally admired artists of the baroque art era. Rubens, an influential Flemish artist of the Italian baroque scene, focused more on the works of the counter-reformation while the masters of the Dutch baroque art, such as Rembrandt, were in the heart of the protestant Dutch Republic. These three artists share similar artistic styles but yet have extremely evident differences and influences. The artists’ work also have a great portrayal of the historical and social impacts of the 17th century.
At this time last year, I would have considered all music before the 20th century to be classical. However, after taking a Dual Credit Music Appreciation course, I realized that “old” music cannot simply be grouped into a single category. There are so many differences that I had no idea existed. Throughout the years, music has changed and evolved, meeting the needs of listeners and performers. Different composers have been catalysts in this change as they have developed new styles and genres. Even though the classical period is directly subsequent of the baroque period, baroque and classical music have countless different qualities and characteristics.
Baroque Period, during which a few of the greatest composers on this planet were born, brought classical music onto a whole new level. The word “Baroque”, which came from the Portuguese for “the imperfect pearl”, implies strange, extravagant and overblown. Toccata, fugue, chorale, ortario, and the concerto Grosso, all of these special musical forms were created and represent this period. The six main characteristics: increased emotional expression, contrast, use of basso continuo, continued harmonic development, use of ornament, and the emphasis of improvisation, molded the unique style of music of the Baroque period.