Understanding the differences and similarities inherent in other cultures may provide opportunities when working with individuals (or groups) who may have different cultural values, beliefs, and/or norms. There are multiple ways to explore different cultures. One way is through Hofstede’s (2017) cultural dimension; which are currently made up of six broad categories, including high-low power distance, individualism-collectivism, masculinity-femininity, uncertainty avoidance, long-short term orientation, and indulgence-restraint. It is beyond the scope of this paper to explore all these cultural dimensions in great detail; however, it is important to understand some of the implications of these scores. The scores for both the US and China can be seen in Table 1, along with the differences between each score.
In the history of human societies, geographic differences are considered to be a factor that led to different lifestyles, values and beliefs that prevailed and have been the distinct characteristic of specific societies in the world today. From a broader viewpoint, it can be said that Asian cultures differ from North American, European, South American, and African cultures. However, it can also be said that there are similarities between North American, European, and African cultures, in the same way that Asian, South American, and again, African cultures share specific values and beliefs. These similarities and differences demonstrate that we are different from each other in so many ways, but we also have similarities that link each individual with another, and ultimately, that we are interdependent with each other.
There are some common ways in which different cultures express their values. Cultures value different things. Some ignorant people think that this also means all cultures do not have similarities to teach or express values. In “Struggle For Smarts? How Eastern And Western Cultures Tackle Learning” it conveys how a professor recorded how American families talked about intelligence being something people are born with. In contrast, in Eastern families they talked about how hard work brought intelligence (Spiegel). This passage shows extremely different values, but when examined, researchers can see they both were expressed through speech. This discovery is not surprising
Values are a person’s principles or standards of behavior. They are one’s judgment of what is important in life. In my family, the most important values are education, independence, and religion. In the olden days, not many women received an education. They were required to stay home and take care of the house and children. My parents, however, knew how important education would be for me and my sisters. My parents did not want me and my sisters to be dependent on another individual.
Considering the specific characteristics of Asian culture, the explanations can be drawn from two perspectives: what decreases the risk and what hides the risk. From general perspective to specific perspective, the following sections will compose the whole
The Tao Te Ching outlines that if people value great individuals, they become weak. Also, if people place high value on possessions, they start to steal. The Tao Te Ching also articulates that the master leads by filling the hearts of people, weakening their ambitions and toughening their determination (Lao-tzu 3). The master assists individuals to lose their knowledge and desires and creates misperception in people who believe they possess knowledge. This concept can be applied in a political conflict in the contemporary world. It is evident that individuals have overvalued possessions. Overvaluing possessions has led to the emergence of various problems that have caused political conflict.
It is no secret that America’s political culture, comprised of a set of common values, attitudes, and beliefs, centers mainly around ideals such as liberty, equality, democracy, and individualism. Those ideas originated from the separation of our nation from England, as well as the convictions of our founding fathers. But are the political cultures of other countries the same as America’s? China’s, for example, is very much different. When discussing the values that make up her political culture, harmony, respect, and loyalty are predominant.
Cultural collectivism is a characteristic of Asian culture, whereas, cultural individualism is more of a characteristics of American culture. Asian Americans tend to be interdependent and Americans tend to be independent. (Costigan, Bardina, Cauce, Kim, & Latendresse, 2006). Asian Americans typically value the family, men and elders. American cultural values do not place honor on men or elders. Asian Americans bestow honor to elders, typically greeting them formally and bowing (PBS, 2015). American culture values family and the elderly, however American culture has created long term care facilities for the elderly to go when they are too old to live alone. Asian Americans typically bring their elders to live
East Asian thought has always made the meaning of virtue a prominent necessity in one’s life. The term virtue was a name for moral value and principle in their society. Virtue had always been associated with power throughout hundreds of centuries in East Asia. This referred to reproductive power or material power such as physical strength. However, during Confucius’ time virtue also came to include moral power. This moral power in East Asia was to achieve something for the “self” and others, along with the ability to persuade. In East Asia, morality and principles have been directly related with virtues. Although East Asia
Asians are known across the world for their strong cultural values, and intelligence. A traditional Asian family consist of males as dominant, and women as passive. Children are raised to respect those whom are in authority, and family is their primary focus. It is emphasized that loyalty, and honesty must be present to avoid shame or embarrassment to the family. Discipline is used to control and train children in order to succeed or obtain achievements. The core values of a traditional Asian home are similar to other ethnic backgrounds. In most cultures, family is the number one priority above any other values. Confucianism is a part of the Asian tradition, in which four basic virtues are derived from philosophy and focuses on loyalty, respect for those in authority with compassion and righteousness.
The Tao Te Ching is a historic Chinese text that is famously known for its rich commentary on a variety of spiritual, ethical, and political topics. A couple themes that are touched in the Tao Te Ching typically deal with the notion of virtue, benevolence, and so forth. In this paper, I will examine four specific stanzas from the Tao Te Ching, illustrate the applicability and relevancy of themes such as materialistic possessions, inner peace, humility & accountability, & political leadership, and demonstrate that such themes can help us re-evaluate our values in today’s society in the path for a harmonious lifestyle.
Since Singapore’s establishment in 1965, the government of Singapore had adopted a genre of paternalistic leadership in many areas (Lee, 2008). Personally, I have so far taken the view that it was the most fundamental thing for this tiny oriental country.
When the PRC’s human rights abuses over passed the forefront of international concern in the 1989’s Tiananmen Square protest, it became certainly a boiling matter concerning and both political manipulation and genuine human rights activism. Moreover, one of the main related issues was and still is the repression of free speech right, religion decision, discrimination abolition as well as torture or slavery, and other main political rights. Yet, the PRC has consistently justified its position by attacking the basic rights formulated in the Universal Declaration, specifically violating civil and political rights.
As there are many aspects of cultures that can be studied and described about the two cultures, only few major aspects of cultural values will be discussed in this paper. One of the major cultural values that can be compared between the two cultures is the Malays rank honesty as first on their list of cultural values whereas the Indians find family as the important aspect in their cultural values.
However, the development of Singapore’s society cannot be predicated on pure economics alone. Even though globalization has enabled Singapore to fare well in economic development, however, termed the perils of success, globalization has brought about undesirable