The Association Between Metacognitive Beliefs And Auditory Hallucinations
2802 Words12 Pages
The association between metacognitive beliefs and auditory hallucinations; a literature review of empirical studies with clinical and non-clinical samples
Several cognitive theories have been proposed in psychology, yet none of those can fully explain the phenomena of auditory hallucinations. Zimmerman et al. (2005) and Wykes et al. (2008) showed that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has a moderate effect in treating positive symptoms (e.g. hallucinations and delusions) of psychotic disorders. That is to say, there is room for improvement in this area of research. Accordingly, it may be beneficial to explore new theories and related interventions. Metacognitive theory provides an excellent framework for understanding certain…show more content…
Moreover, a hallucination is not receptive to control by the individual who is experiencing it. Auditory hallucinations are among the most common. Individuals who suffer from auditory hallucinations hear sounds or voices that have no actual source (5th ed.; DSM-5). It is common that the individual initially experience the sound as coming through his or her ears. However, sometimes, the individual will eventually perceive the sound as coming from inside his or her head (Romme et al., 1992). David and Nayani (1996) claimed that individuals who suffer from auditory hallucinations may hear more than one voice. The voices can differ in content, comment on the individual’s thoughts and even have a conversation.
Cognitive theories were dominant for understanding and treating auditory hallucinations (Pilling et al., 2002). Some contemporary cognitive theories proposed that hallucinations are the result of misattributions of internal events to external sources (Garety et al., 2001; Bentall, 1990). Auditory hallucinations are internal verbal speech or thoughts that are perceived by the individual as occurring externally, according to those cognitive theories. Findings by Preston and Green (1981) support these misattribution theories by showing an association between auditory hallucinations and sub-vocalisation.
Metacognitive beliefs and auditory hallucinations