Attachment Theory and Children Attachment theory led not only to increased attention to attachments as a psychosocial process, it also led to a new understanding of child development (Bowlby, 1969). Freudian theory suggested that as libidinal drives fixed on different objects, former attachments would be broken; failure to break an attachment effectively would constitute a sort of trauma that could lead to later mental illness (Bretherton (1992). Attachment theory, however, suggested that growing children did not break former attachments, but rather (1) learned to become more active (or sovereign) within previously established attachments, and (2) added new attachments, which did not necessarily require a break with (and are not
This essay will look at the development of attachment theory since the time of Bowlby and the many theories proposed to determine which best describes attachment. The Attachment theory highlights the importance of attachment especially between mothers and infants in regards to the infants personal
AS Psychology - Attachment Revision What is Attachment?:- “Attachment is the close bond between two people which endures over time and leads to certain behaviors such as proximity seeking, clinging and distress on separation, These behaviors serve the function of protecting an infant”
Issue/Problem: Attachment Disorder Attachment Disorder is a lack of forming a secure attachment between a child and their primary caretaker. This usually develops when the child has experienced trauma of some sort either by neglect or abuse (the book: A Short Introduction). Because the child does not form this strong attachment it can lead to the child having emotional and behavioral disorders as the child grows up. In their article about attachment disorders, Thomas O’Connor and Charles H. Zeanah write that, “The implication is that the absence of a consistent caregiver and selective attachment may play a central etiological role in the development of attachment disorders.” (O’Connor & Zeanah, 2003) Children who have been diagnosed with
Even though insecure attachment does not cause psychopathology directly, early childhood attachment, family context, and other social experiences may shape a person in such a way that certain developmental pathways are more likely to be followed than others. Such adolescents and their parents may become weighed down by effect associated individuation which, in turn, contributes to conflict. Data support a significant association between insecure attachment and depressive symptoms in adolescents (Hankin, 2005; Irons & Gilbert, 2005). Data also show that insecure attachment is associated with anxiety symptoms in adolescents (Muris & Meesters, 2002; Muris, Meesters, van Melick, & Zwambag, 2001). Eventually, such attachment dimensions may be vulnerability for later anxiety and depressive symptoms (Davila, Ramsay, Stroud, & Steinberg, 2005). Parenting contributions also include abuse, teem parenting, substance abuse, or intergenerational attachment difficulties. There are some contributions from child that can affect attachment pattern later in life, like, physical and/or emotional unavailability of child, babies with difficult temperament, premature birth, lack of fit with parent, medical conditions causing unrelieved pain, hospitalization, failure to thrive syndrome, congenital and / or biological problems, neurological impairment, FAS, in utero drug exposure, physical handicap, teratogen exposure, genetic disorders etc. (Potter, & Sullivan,
John Bowlby, the backbone of attachment theories will be discussed throughout this essay to explain and evaluate the key theories of attachment. Health and well-being which is made up of four factors ‘physical, intellectual, emotional and social ' (Jones, 2016), will also be discussed within the essay. The definition of attachment is ‘an act of attaching or the state of being attached. ' (Dictionary, 1400) This will be showed in the assignment, using theorists to analyse the meaning. Sharing the strengths and weaknesses in some theorists will help conclude this assignment.
EFT is an attachment based research theory, that suggest that couples have strong need to stay connected (bond) to each other. As such, bonding is very important in marital relationships and if the bond is disappearing, then stressful and negative cycle pattern begins to emerge. Thus, the goal of EFT is to support couples walk through a process of healing (overcoming the negative patterns, rebuilding the connection again, and fortify the bond) (Goldenberg, Stanton, & Goldenberg, 2017). From the assessment that has carried out by the therapist it is clear that Tam and Lisa do not have what it takes to manage or settle conflicts without it escalating into something else. As such, the bonding between them is disappearing and it’s becoming stressful and disturbing to them and their children. Because Jimmy and Emma even though do not see their parent fight or disagree in the open but they can sense the disconnection between their parent and feel the tension whenever both of them where at home. More so, because of the negative pattern that has emerge as a result of lack of secure attachment, there is no more interactions between the couple and each others needs are not met. From the case conceptualization, and to decide what treatment plan should target or focus on the therapist will use the step-by-step treatment manual provided by Johnson and Greenberg (1995) as cited in (Goldenberg et al., 2017) for the therapy process:
Bowlby’s work on attachment theory shows infants treated well develop a secure attachment. Hence they have a good foundation for healthy self-esteem, behavior, and future relationships (Barnet, Ganiban, & Cicchetti, 1991). If the infant develops an insecure bond with the caregiver, they may develop mental disturbances (Cicchetti, Ganiban, & Barnett, 1991). Mary Ainsworth, Bowlby’s contemporary, applied Bowlby’s theory in her research. In 1978, Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, and Wall, created the strange situation technique to study one year old infant attachments (as cited in Colonnesi et al., 2011, p.631). Results of their analysis led to three categories of attachment. They distinguished a secure (B), an insecure avoidant (A), and insecure ambivalent attachment (C)
Introduction John Bowlby’s Attachment theory is relevant to serial murderers since it looks at the child’s early life experiences, focusing on the bond between the mother and child (Bretherton, 1992). It argues that a break in the bond will lead the child to a life of crime and delinquency. In this paper we will discuss two points. The first point is discussing Aileen’s Wuornos life from childhood to adulthood and the second point is explaining how her life is relevant to Bowlby’s Attachment Theory. We will finally know what happened in Aileen Wuornos’ life that caused her to become one of the most famous female serial killers of all time.
This essay will comprise, firstly, of past research looking into what attachment/ attachment theory is, focusing on Bowlby’s (1973) research into why an infant’s first attachment is so important. Followed, by the work of Ainsworth et al (1978) bringing to light the findings from the strange situation, and how the
The theory from chapter 1 that I chose was attachment theory. Attachment theory, coined by John Bowlby, is a concept in developmental psychology that concerns the importance of "attachment" in regards to personal development. It states that the ability for an individual to form an emotional and physical "attachment" to another person gives a sense of stability and the means necessary to take risks, branch out, and grow and develop as a personality. One of Bowlby’s main points in attachment theory is “separation anxiety is experienced when attachment behaviour is activated and cannot be terminated unless reunion is restored” (Bowlby 1969). “They also, have trouble maintaining a boundary between someone else’s distress and their own” (Weinfield, Sroufe, 1999) and they do everything possible to prevent separation. Bowlby has four assumptions: “infants and young children develop emotional ties with individuals early in life, the way a child is treated early in life has a major contributing factor to their future relationships and the way their personality is formed, attachment behaviour can form an 'internal working model ' which guide the child 's thoughts, feelings and expectations as a result of the reactions of others towards their behaviour, it is difficult to alter attachment behavior but it is not impossible” (Green 2003). There are also five different attachments styles, secure, avoidant, ambivalent, disorganized, and reactive.Secure attachment style individuals are
Introduction John Bowlby developed his Attachment Theory to examine and explore the contextual relationships between a child and their caregiver and their behavioral repercussions. He describes it is “a way of conceptualizing the propensity of human beings to make strong affectional bonds to particular others and of explaining the many forms of emotional distress and personality disturbance, including anxiety, anger, depression, and emotional detachment, to which unwilling separation and loss give rise” (Bowlby, 1979, p. 127). An infant’s attachment to their primary caregiver establishes a sense of security, through protection, so the infant is able to explore the world with confidence and without threat and risk. During a child’s
Attachment is defined as a deep, affectionate, and enduring emotional bond that forms between two people, namely an infant and a caregiver. It is developed during the first years of an infant’s life and has four types depending on the quality of the attachment: secure, ambivalent, avoidant, and disorganised. It
The Application of the Theory of Attachment Many psychologists have come and gone, and many different theoretical orientations have been developed. With each orientation has come a new perspective on development, behaviour and mental processes. Some are similar, yet others could not be more contradictory. Attachment is one such theoretical orientation, developed by John Bowlby out of his dissatisfaction with other existing theories. Although Bowlby rejected psychoanalytical explanations for early infant bonds, the theory of attachment was influenced in part by the principles of psychoanalysis; in particular the observations by Ana Freud and Dorothy Burlingham of young children separated from
Exploration of Attachment Theory Fully describe the theory including the main concepts and principles Attachment theory is a concept that explores the importance of attachment in respect to direct development. “It is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space” (Bowlby, 1969; McLeod, 2009).