Cohen’s article is a reminder to be careful when reviewing research. This article shows how not all research is true and people put their faith into what they want the research to mean. It is damaging to the progression of psychology as a science if researchers do not claim something as significant for being true. We do this by claiming something is significant because that is what NHST says, and
On this note, the psychodynamic theory also provided psychological treatments which are still widely used today in therapy for personality disorders. These two treatments in psychodynamic theory are the Rorschach inkblot test and assessment/analysis of dreams. In the Rorschach test the subjects perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analysed using psychological interpretation, complex scientifically derived algorithms or both. These can be used to assess an individual’s personality characteristics. However this Rorschach test itself has been strongly criticised. Firstly
Psychology has remained a progressive science due to the many contributions of influential leaders. In this paper I will mention three historical figures who I believe were important in the development of the field of psychology in the past and till this day. Paul Ekman is an American psychologist who became a pioneer in the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions. He was born in 1934, Washington D.C., he graduated with a Ph. D in clinical psychology from the Adelphi University. Following his work in clinical psychology, he became a consultant in the Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute. Ekman is known as the “human lie detector” due to his expertise in the physiology of emotion, his ability to detect deception and his
The Rorschach inkblot test is one of the most widely known psychological projective test of personality, and the most controversial. In general, projective tests are psychoanalytically based tools that assist clients to reveal their unconscious conflicts via responses towards ambiguous stimuli, and can also help psychologists to determine psychological disorders. Specifically, the Rorschach allows individuals to interpret a series of abstract inkblots based on their emotional and cognitive function, as well as interaction (Barlow & Durand, 2009).
Pedersen (1987) found that, “Despite the numerical reality, many social scientists, including psychologists, depend on textbooks, research finding, and implicit psychological theory based almost entirely on assumptions specific to European and American culture”.
9-10 marks – Correct and comprehensive use of psychological terminology. Description of evidence is accurate, relevant, coherent and detailed. Elaboration/use of example/quality of description is very good and the ability to interpret/explain the evidence selected in the context of the question is very
Psychology became popular after the psychological testing that was conducted after World War I. Unfortunately many unqualified individuals were claiming to be able to deliver psychological services. While the APA attempted to put a resolution in place stating that only trained professionals would be allowed to administer the psychological testing. There were no clear guidelines to what made a professional “qualified” and many individuals did not belong to
The Rosenhan experiment was an experiment into the validity of psychiatric diagnosis, conducted by David Rosenhan in 1973. The study is considered an important and influential criticism of psychiatric diagnosis.
Did you ever ask yourself who you really are? The Rorschach test tries to answer to this question. The Rorschach test is a projective test which means the subjects projects his unconscious mind and thoughts in the image to describe and explain it. There are a lot of different projective tests, but in this case, an inkblot test. In this essay we will discuss whether this test is still valid or not. We are firstly going to present you the creator of this test and what it is all about, after that, we will present you the different inkblots and what they reveal, and finally we will debate on the reasons that pushes this test to be more invalid than valid.
Franz Joseph Gall created the main principles of phrenology, which was the first scientific theory of brain localization. His theories were based entirely on observation and natural philosophy. Phrenology was the study of associating an individual’s personality characteristics and mental abilities based on the shape of their skull. It was incomparably influential throughout the first half of the 19th century thanks to Gall and his many successors. Some of the main tenants of phrenology were later confirmed by scientific experiments and technology.
The Rorschach is a projective personality test, which measures personality functioning and assess personality structure. This instrument was published originally in 1921 by Rorschach. Although there were inkblot tests existed prior to the Rorschach, this was the first empirically based system. The assessor interprets the client’s responses to 10 bilaterally symmetrical inkblot images (Groth-Marnat, 2009). The images are ambiguous and non-figurative in nature. Some of the images are in black and white and others contain colors. The Rorschach differs from other projective tests such as Thematic Appercepetion test (TAT). The Rorschach is known as a type of associative or structural technique whereas TAT is a type of construction technique (Campos, 2011). The scoring of responses is done according to the location (or the
In their research paper Crawford et al (2012) argue that clinicians often rely on colour choice within drawings to make inferences about the psychological functioning, without much empirical evidence to support such associations. They therefore aimed to investigate the relation of colour preferences and colour use in clinical and non-clinical contexts, to test the validity of interpretations made by clinicians.