The Bacteria Escherichia Coli ( E. Coli )

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Question 1

In the past scientist have used the bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) in Synthetic Biology to allow the bacterial species to recognise and respond to light frequencies providing greater knowledge of complex biological systems (Levskaya et al. 2005). E. coli is a suitable chassis to express Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as the bacteria’s plasmid helps to establish GFP (Chavshin et al. 2013). The bacterial plasmid is a maltose-binding protein that helps E. coli and GFP fuse together and allows for detection of gene expression and controlling internal environments (Feilmeier et al. 2000). As GFP is a useful biological indicator due to its fluorescent structure (Mazzola et al. 2005) and through the ability of E. coli responding to light, GFP is easily expressed through the process of light stimulation (Lee, J et al. 2013). Through the unique structure and functions found within E. coli, it allows for successful expression of GFP making E. coli a suitable base organism.

Question 2

Jellyfish (Aequorea victoria) naturally produce GFP (Zupen et al. 2004) allowing for extraction of the organisms genes and protein to engineer a bacteria that can produce GFP. Scientists are able to blind a bacterial species for example E. coli with GFP by cloning the genes found within jellyfish that produce Green Florescent Protein and insert it into a chosen bacterial species (Zupen et al. 2004). Through the expression of the GFP gene in other organisms, synthetic biology can be
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